What Type of fly is this? its huge

What Type of fly is this? its huge

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I found this stunningly beautiful Fly in a graveyard in Point Lonsdale Australia. Can someone tell my what type it is Please.

It was wide as my thumbnail about 3cm long.

Could be a blue rutila fly (Family Tachinidae) Or the green rutila fly, which is similar.

Or the golden head rutila:

Basic Fly Biology

Understanding the biology of a specific class of insects is critical to designing an effective control program.

Images by Stoy Hedges except where noted.

Editor’s Note: The following article is excerpted from the recently published PCT Field Guide for the Management of Structure-Infesting Flies, 2 nd Edition.

Flies are ubiquitous insects being found in virtually every ecological niche, even some with extreme cold or heat. They develop in decomposing matter, manure, fungi, on plants, in water, and a few as parasites of mammals and other animals.

Some prefer to eat sweets (Syrphidae), others like to consume things that are decomposing (Phoridae, Muscidae, Calliphoridae), and some are predators of other insects (Asilidae, Tabanidae), but the most globally impactful are those that feed on blood, including mosquitoes (Culicidae), blackflies (Simuliidae) and sandflies (Psychodidae). Millions of people are afflicted by the diseases carried by these flies, and sadly, many thousands die annually.

Around homes and businesses, the species of flies that become pests are relatively few compared to the 160,000 known species worldwide. Most of these pest species have high moisture requirements in common regarding breeding sites, while others like mosquitoes (Culicidae), crane flies (Tipulidae), midges (Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae) and horse/deer flies (Tabanidae) are specialized for breeding in aquatic environments. A nuisance pest, the cluster fly (Pollenia spp.), is a parasite of earthworms. Fungus gnats (Sciaridae, Mycetophilidae) breed on molds and in fungi. Hover flies and flower flies (Syrphidae) vary regarding larval developmental behaviors as many species are predaceous on aphids while others breed in decaying organic matter or stagnant aquatic environments.

DEVELOPMENT. All flies are holometabolous, meaning they develop by complete metamorphosis and have the life stages of egg, larva, pupa and adult. Some flies, such as many flesh flies (Sarcophagidae), bypass an exposed egg stage altogether, instead depositing their larvae (hatched internally) directly from the abdomen to the breeding media (i.e., animal carcasses).

Eggs. Upon completion of mating, female flies begin a quest to find the best places to deposit their eggs. The numbers of eggs produced by one female will vary by species but can number in the hundreds during a female fly’s lifetime. House flies and face flies (Muscidae), for example, target animal manure primarily but also will lay eggs in decaying organic matter. Blow flies (Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Sarcophagidae) prefer dead animals, but blow flies will breed in garbage and decaying organic matter.

Most mosquitoes (Culicidae) deposit their eggs in still or stagnant waters though some floodwater species deposit eggs on dry land in low areas likely to flood. When floods occur — sometimes even years later — the eggs give rise to larvae, which then pupate, and soon produce a mass emergence of adult mosquitoes within a week or so.

Some bot fly species (Oestridae) will deposit eggs on a house fly or mosquito, and once those flies land on a suitable warm-blooded mammal host, the larvae, sensing the body heat, will drop off the mosquito or house fly and burrow into the skin of that animal. Another obligatory parasite of mammals related to blow flies (Calliphoridae), screwworm flies (Cochliomyia spp.), deposit their larvae directly along the edges of open wounds on animals.

Larvae. Fly larvae come in many forms, and most all lack any legs at all, although some have vestigial (partial or undeveloped) legs that may add in some locomotion. Fly larvae can be exceedingly difficult to identify to species or type without training in immature insect morphology and taxonomy. Pest professionals may be able to identify a few larval types using tips in the fly field guide but, in general, should seek the help of an entomologist when encountering fly larvae that are too difficult to identify.

The soft, legless, often white or cream-colored immatures of house flies (Muscidae), blow flies (Calliphoridae), and flesh flies (Sarcophagidae) are commonly known as maggots (Figure 1). Outdoor trash cans and dumpsters during the warm months often contain a few to hundreds of fly maggots. An experienced service technician may be able to identify the type or species of maggot based on examination of the tail end where the spiracles (breathing valves) are found (see Figure 2). The spiracles are diagnostic in their appearance.

Figure 1. Fly larvae most often encountered by PMPs are legless and are known as maggots.

The shape of fly larvae can vary greatly. Mosquito larvae (Culicidae) seen in water are typically adorned with many spines and possess a tube-like appendage (or siphon) at the tip with which the larvae use to breathe at the water’s surface. Crane fly larvae (Tipulidae) are also aquatic but are long and worm-like in appearance with several short tubercules extending from the head end. Moth fly larvae (Psychodidae) found in aqueous areas are worm-like and have a siphon tube for breathing, but the larva’s body lacks the spines and hairs seen on mosquito larvae.

The larvae of some flies (non-Brachycera/old suborder Nematocera) have chewing mouthparts, but most fly larvae have the mandibles modified into mouth hooks for use in tearing and rasping soft food. Mosquito larvae have mouth brushes used for filter feeding — guiding floating particles of food, such as algae, into their digestive systems.

Figure 2. The shape and design of the spiracles found at the rear of maggot larvae (arrows) can be used to identify between different types and species of flies.

Development of a fly larva from egg to pupa varies greatly, usually dependent on fly species, quality of breeding media and temperature. A general rule around structures is that if an area or item holds water for at least seven days, it can breed mosquitoes, at least those species (e.g. Aedes spp.) known as “tree hole” mosquitoes. Fruit flies and house flies can complete the larval stage within a matter of days. Cluster flies may take several weeks for the larvae to develop within the bodies of earthworms.

By contrast, the human bot fly, Dermatobia hominis, found in tropical areas, takes up to six weeks to complete its development within a human host.

Pupa. The pupal stage is where all the action occurs, turning a soft larva into the adult fly. The length of time for the pupal stage varies by species and temperature, but flies with short larval development periods typically have short pupal stages also. Fly larvae of many families (e.g., Muscidae, Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Stratiomyidae, Drosophilidae, Phoridae) form pupae within the final larval skins (exuviae). Pupae encased by larval exuviae are called puparia.

Pupae and puparia can vary by type of fly and in some cases, you may be able to identify the family, and sometimes species by shape. For example, soldier fly (Stratiomyidae) puparia bear the shape of the surrounding larval exuvia (Figure 3). Phorid (Phoridae) puparia have two protrusions at one end (Figure 4).

Figure 3. The puparia of soldier flies bear the appearance of their larvae and are most often found around dumpsters. Figure 4. The puparia of phorid flies have two characteristic protrusions at one end.

Figure 5. Puparium of a blow fly.

Indoors, one may encounter red-brown to brown puparia along baseboards, in a ceiling or piled in a corner (see Figure 5). The sizes of the puparia may vary, and these typically will be those of blow/bottle flies or flesh flies. The source will be some dead animal within a wall, ceiling or chimney flue. The pupae of house flies and other related flies will be similar in appearance but are seldom found indoors.

Adult. Adult flies are characterized by having only two wings. Flies are found in all different sizes, shapes and colors. Most are dully colored with grays, blacks and browns but may have splashes of color here and there, particularly the eyes. Some species of horse fly eyes, for example, may have brightly colored stripes over the compound eyes when the light hits a certain way (see Figure 6).

Some flies are noted for the size of the eyes (big-headed flies, Pipunculidae) or the long, thin legs (stilt legged flies, Micropezidae), while feather legged flies (Trichopoda spp., Tachinidae) are known for the feather-like fringe of flattened hairs on the rear legs (see Figure 7). Some flies are hairy (robber flies, Asilidae), while others have far fewer prominent hairs or spines (most hover flies, Syrphidae).

Figure 6. The large compound eyes of some horse flies often contain stripes or spots of color. Figure 8. Some hover flies, though harmless, may be mistaken by customers for wasps. Figure 7. Feather-legged flies have a feather-like fringe on their rear legs. Figure 9. This robber fly looks virtually identical to a bumble bee except that it has only two wings instead of the four that bees have.

Most adult flies have sucking mouthparts, although certain crane flies (Tipulidae) have no functional mouthparts as adults. Flies that feed on the hemolymph (blood equivalent) of other insects, or the blood of host vertebrates, have piercing-sucking mouthparts (e.g., mosquitoes, biting midges, stable flies, horse and deer flies, robber flies). Flies that feed on nectar have siphoning-sucking mouthparts (e.g., some crane flies, bee flies). The majority of adult flies (e.g., house flies, blow flies, flesh flies, soldier flies, fruit flies, phorid flies, hover/flower flies) have sponging-sucking mouthparts for feeding on available liquids, often including liquified solids on which the fly has regurgitated digestive enzymes and saliva.

Many flies are mimics of bees and wasps. Some hover flies (Syrphidae) are mistaken for wasps (see Figure 8), while one genus of robber fly (Asilidae) is easily mistaken for bumble bees (see Figure 9).

The fact that the specimen has only two wings is the primary clue that it is a fly and not a bee or wasp. A closer look at robber fly’s tiny antennae and piercing-sucking mouthparts also help to distinguish it from a wasp, which has longer segmented antennae and mandibles for chewing.

PCT Fly Field Guide Now Available

The completely revised and updated 2 nd edition of the PCT Field Guide for the Management of Structure-Infesting Flies is now available. Double the size of the original, this handy field guide is authored by well-known industry consultant Stoy Hedges and features valuable insights about fly identification, biology and control an expanded color ID section and enhanced taxonomic key.

In addition, the 2 nd edition contains all-new profiles of freeloader flies, biting midges, robber flies, bot flies, non- biting midges, tachinid flies, ked flies and the little house fly.

What Type of fly is this? its huge - Biology

Objective: Students will learn and apply the principles of Mendelian inheritance by experimentation with the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Students will make hypotheses for monohybrid, dihybrid and sex-linked traits and test their hypotheses by selecting fruit flies with different visible mutations, mating them, and analyzing the phenotypic ratios of the offspring.

The image shown below shows a wild-type female fly (left) and a male fly. Recall that "wild-type" refers to the most common or typical form seen in the wild. A + sign is used to denote when a fly displays the wild-type characteristic.


Examine the phenotypes available from the left side menu to answer the following questions.

1. Examine the different types of bristles seen in flies. Geneticists use a shorthand labeling system, F = forked. Identify the phenotypes shown:

2. Compare antennae types. How is "aristapedia" different from wild-type?

3. What are different eye colors in fruit flies? Circle the one that is wild-type.

4. Regarding wing size, what is the difference between apterous and vestigial?

5. What are the body colors in fruit flies?

6. Create a mutant fly with any number of variations and mate it with a wild-type fly. How many offspring were wild-type?

7. Mate the offspring of the cross. Use the analyze tab to get more details about the F2 offspring. (The button to "ignore sex" may make counting easier.)

How many wild-type offspring were produced?

How many mutant flies were produced?

Part 2: Monohybrid Crosses

You may realize that choosing a lot of different types of flies make it difficult to analyze inheritance patterns. Your next tasks will focus on analyzing single traits within flies to determine how they are inherited.

1. Reset all flies in the design tab.
2. Design a male fly with vestigial wings and cross it with a wild-type female
3. Add the results to your "Lab Notes."
4. Mate the offspring of this cross.

5. Based on these two crosses you probably have an idea about how vestigial wings are inherited.

Is VG recessive or dominant?

How do you know?

6. In genetics, numbers are statistically analyzed. The fly simulator has a built into it. Under the Analyze tab, you can click on "Include a test hypothesis."

If your hypothesis that VG is a recessive trait is correct, then you would expect what proportion of the F2 offspring to have vestigial wings?

What proportion would have wild-type wings?

7. Place the expected numbers in the hypothesis field and click on "test your hypothesis." The program will do the chi square calculations.

What is your chi-squared test statistic?

Compare this to the chi square table to determine a goodness of fit.

8. Summary: Explain how vestigial wings are inherited in fruit flies (claim) and provide evidence from your data and chi-square statistic analysis.

Part 3: Sex Linked Traits

1. Cross a white eyed male with a wild-type female.

How many of the offspring are males / red eyes?

How many females / red eyes?

2. Predict what would happen if you crossed two of the offspring. Explain your reasoning by showing a punnett square

3. Perform the cross and use the statistical analysis tool to test your prediction.

4. Summary: Explain how red/white eye color is inherited in fruit flies (claim) and provide evidence from your data and chi-square statistic

Part 4: Lethal Alleles

Aristapedia is a lethal allele that is also dominant. Individuals with this trait must be heterozygous (Aa) because the homozygous condition (AA) is lethal. This is not a sex-linked trait. Wild-type flies do not carry the allele for aristopedia (aa).

1. Predict what the outcome of a cross between a wild-type fly and one with aristopedia. Show the punnett square to illustrate your reasoning.

2. Perform the cross and determine if your prediction is correct using statistical analysis. Summarize your results and indicate whether your prediction is confirmed.

Part 5: Linkage Groups

When two alleles are located on the same chromosome they are inherited together. However, crossing-over can occur during meiosis and the alleles are switched. Vestigial wings (VG) and Black body color (BL) are located on chromosome 2.

1. Cross a female VG, BL fly with a wild-type male. (ggbb x GGBB)

How many wild-type offspring are produced?

What is the genotype of these offspring?

2. Choose a female from the offspring and mate it with a male that has vestigial wings and a black body. Show a punnett square or a visual representation of the alleles involved in this cross to make a prediction about the offspring.

3. Complete the table (ignore sex).

Phenotype Observed Proportion
+ (wild-type)
Vestigial wings (gg)
Black body (bb)
VG, BL (ggbb)

4. How does crossing-over affect the observed outcomes? Explain why the observed flies do not match your prediction.

5. The percentage of crossing over events is used to develop a map of chromosomes. View the chromosome map.

How far apart are the alleles for black body and vestigial wings?

View the proportion of flies from your data that indicate crossover occurred (VG and BL flies) and multiple it by 100. Based on your data, how far apart are these alleles?


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Scientists looking across human, fly and worm genomes find shared biology

Studies reveal powerful commonalities in biological activity, regulation among species.

Researchers analyzing human, fly, and worm genomes have found that these species have a number of key genomic processes in common, reflecting their shared ancestry. The findings, appearing Aug. 28, 2014, in the journal Nature, offer insights into embryonic development, gene regulation and other biological processes vital to understanding human biology and disease.

The studies highlight the data generated by the modENCODE Project and the ENCODE Project, both supported by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), part of the National Institutes of Health. Integrating data from the three species, the model organism ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements (modENCODE) Consortium studied how gene expression patterns and regulatory proteins that help determine cell fate often share common features. Investigators also detailed the similar ways in which the three species use protein packaging to compact DNA into the cell nucleus and to regulate genome function by controlling access to DNA.

Launched in 2007, the goal of modENCODE is to create a comprehensive catalog of functional elements in the fruit fly and roundworm genomes for use by the research community. Such elements include genes that code for proteins, non-protein-coding genes and regulatory elements that control gene expression. The current work builds on initial catalogs published in 2010. The modENCODE projects complement the work being done by the ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project, which is building a comprehensive catalog of functional elements in the human and mouse genomes.

“The modENCODE investigators have provided a valuable resource for researchers worldwide,” said NHGRI Director Eric Green, M.D., Ph.D. “The insights gained about the workings of model organisms’ genomes greatly help to inform our understanding of human biology.”

“One way to describe and understand the human genome is through comparative genomics and studying model organisms,” said Mark Gerstein, Ph.D., Albert L. Williams Professor of Biomedical Informatics at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, and the lead author on one of the papers. “The special thing about the worm and fly is that they are very distant from humans evolutionarily, so finding something conserved across all three — human, fly and worm — tells us it is a very ancient, fundamental process.”

In one study, scientists led by Dr. Gerstein and others, analyzed human, fly and worm transcriptomes, the collection of gene transcripts (or readouts) in a genome. They used large amounts of gene expression data generated in the ENCODE and modENCODE projects — including more than 67 billion gene sequence readouts — to discover gene expression patterns shared by all three species, particularly for developmental genes.

Investigators showed that the ways in which DNA is packaged in the cell are similar in many respects, and, in many cases, the species share programs for turning on and off genes in a coordinated manner. More specifically, they used gene expression patterns to match the stages of worm and fly development and found sets of genes that parallel each other in their usage. They also found the genes specifically expressed in the worm and fly embryos are re-expressed in the fly pupae, the stage between larva and adult.

The researchers found that in all three organisms, the gene expression levels for both protein-coding and non-protein-coding genes could be quantitatively predicted from chromatin features at the promoters of genes. A gene’s promoter tells the cell’s machinery where to begin copying DNA into RNA, which can be used to make proteins. DNA is packaged into chromatin in cells, and changes in this packaging can regulate gene function.

“Our findings open whole new worlds for understanding gene expression and how we think about the role of transcription,” said co-senior author Susan Celniker, Ph.D., Head, Department of Genome Dynamics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California. “modENCODE has been transformative,” she added. “It has helped set the standard for the types of data that should be generated and catalogued.”

Another group of scientists investigated how chromatin is organized and how it influences gene regulation in the three species. Using both modENCODE and ENCODE data, scientists compared patterns of modifications in chromatin that are needed for the cell to access the DNA inside, and the changes in DNA replication patterns as a result of these modifications. The investigators discovered that many features of chromatin were similar in all three species.

“We found mostly that the usage of chromatin modification by the three organisms is highly conserved,” said co-senior author Jason Lieb, Ph.D., professor of human genetics, University of Chicago. He noted there is a great deal of interest in chromatin because of its potential connection to some diseases, such as cancer. A number of studies have shown that some cancers may be driven in part by mutations in chromatin-related genes.

In a third study, scientists explored similarities in genome regulation. Scientists focused on transcription-regulatory factors, key protein regulators that determine which progenitor cells eventually become skin cells and kidney cells and eye cells. “These are the key coordinators – they bind to switches that control a cell’s fate. One of the big questions in genomics is to determine what factors work together to turn on which genes,” said co-senior author Michael Snyder, Ph.D., director, Stanford Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

Investigators found that the transcription factors tend to bind to similar DNA sequences in the three species’ genomes, indicating that “the general properties of how regulatory information is laid out in the genomes are conserved in the three species,” Dr. Snyder noted. “The general principles of regulation are more or less similar.” Still, they found differences as well. The transcription factors bind very few of the same targets across species, and they are mostly expressed at different times.

Including these newly published studies, more than a dozen modENCODE Consortium papers have been or will be published in the journals Nature, Genome Research, Genome Biology, and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences this year. These additional papers report studies involving deeper analyses within one or more species, methods development and investigations of particular biological processes. This collection of papers is the culmination of the modENCODE program, for which funding ended in 2012. More than 100 papers using modENCODE data by groups outside of the program have already been published. It is anticipated that the data and resources produced by modENCODE will continue to be used by the broader research community for years to come.

The work on Drosophila

Morgan apparently began breeding Drosophila in 1908. In 1909 he observed a small but discrete variation known as white-eye in a single male fly in one of his culture bottles. Aroused by curiosity, he bred the fly with normal (red-eyed) females. All of the offspring (F1) were red-eyed. Brother–sister matings among the F1 generation produced a second generation (F2) with some white-eyed flies, all of which were males. To explain this curious phenomenon, Morgan developed the hypothesis of sex-limited—today called sex-linked—characters, which he postulated were part of the X-chromosome of females. Other genetic variations arose in Morgan’s stock, many of which were also found to be sex-linked. Because all the sex-linked characters were usually inherited together, Morgan became convinced that the X-chromosome carried a number of discrete hereditary units, or factors. He adopted the term gene, which was introduced by the Danish botanist Wilhelm Johannsen in 1909, and concluded that genes were possibly arranged in a linear fashion on chromosomes. Much to his credit, Morgan rejected his skepticism about both the Mendelian and chromosome theories when he saw from two independent lines of evidence—breeding experiments and cytology—that one could be treated in terms of the other.

In collaboration with A.H. Sturtevant, C.B. Bridges, and H.J. Muller, who were graduates at Columbia, Morgan quickly developed the Drosophila work into a large-scale theory of heredity. Particularly important in this work was the demonstration that each Mendelian gene could be assigned a specific position along a linear chromosome “map.” Further cytological work showed that these map positions could be identified with precise chromosome regions, thus providing definitive proof that Mendel’s factors had a physical basis in chromosome structure. A summary and presentation of the early phases of this work was published by Morgan, Sturtevant, Bridges, and Muller in 1915 as the influential book The Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity. To varying degrees Morgan also accepted the Darwinian theory by 1916.

In 1928 Morgan was invited to organize the division of biology of the California Institute of Technology. He was also instrumental in establishing the Marine Laboratory on Corona del Mar as an integral part of Caltech’s biology training program. In subsequent years, Morgan and his coworkers, including a number of postdoctoral and graduate students, continued to elaborate on the many features of the chromosome theory of heredity. Toward the end of his stay at Columbia and more so after moving to California, Morgan himself slipped away from the technical Drosophila work and began to return to his earlier interest in experimental embryology. Although aware of the theoretical links between genetics and development, he found it difficult at that time to draw the connection explicitly and to support it with experimental evidence.

In 1924 Morgan received the Darwin Medal in 1933 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery of “hereditary transmission mechanisms in Drosophila” and in 1939 he was awarded the Copley Medal by the Royal Society of London, of which he was a foreign member. In 1927–31 he served as president of the National Academy of Sciences in 1930 of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and in 1932 of the Sixth International Congress of Genetics. He remained on the faculty at Caltech until his death.

5 Different Types of Microscopes:

  1. Stereo Microscope
  2. Compound Microscope
  3. Inverted Microscope
  4. Metallurgical Microscope
  5. Polarizing Microscope

Stereo Microscopes

Stereo microscopes are used to look at a variety of samples that you would be able to hold in your hand. A stereo microscope provides a 3D image or "stereo" image and typically will provide magnification between 10x - 40x. The stereo microscope is used in manufacturing, quality control, coin collecting, science, for high school dissection projects, and botany. A stereo microscope typically provides both transmitted and reflected illumination and can be used to view a sample that will not allow light to pass through it.

The following are samples often viewed under a stereo microscope: coins, flowers, insects, plastic or metal parts, printed circuit boards, fabric weaves, frog anatomy, and wires.

This image of a penny was captured under the a coin collecting stereo zoom microscope at 20x magnification.

Compound Microscopes

A compound microscope may also be referred to as a biological microscope. Compound microscopes are used in laboratories, schools, wastewater treatment plants, veterinary offices, and for histology and pathology. The samples viewed under a compound microscope must be prepared on a microscope slide using a cover slip to flatten the sample. Students will often view prepared slides under the microscope to save time by eliminating the slide preparation process.

The compound microscope can be used to view a variety of samples, some of which include: blood cells, cheek cells, parasites, bacteria, algae, tissue, and thin sections of organs. Compound microscopes are used to view samples that can not be seen with the naked eye. The magnification of a compound microscope is most commonly 40x, 100x, 400x, and sometimes 1000x. Microscopes that advertise magnification above 1000x should not be purchased as they are offering empty magnification with low resolution.

This image of mushroom spores was captured under a compound biological microscope at 400x magnification.

Inverted Microscopes

Inverted microscopes are available as biological inverted microscopes or metallurgical inverted microscopes. Biological inverted microscopes provide magnification of 40x, 100x and sometimes 200x and 400x. These biological inverted microscopes are used to view living samples that are in a petri dish. An inverted microscope allows the user to place the petri dish on a flat stage, with the objective lenses housed beneath the stage. Inverted microscopes are used for in-vitro fertilization, live cell imaging, developmental biology, cell biology, neuroscience, and microbiology. Inverted microscopes are often used in research to analyze and study tissues and cells, and in particular living cells.

Metallurgical inverted microscopes are used to examine large parts at high magnification for fractures or faults. They are similar to biological inverted microscope in the magnification provided, but one primary difference is that the samples are not placed in a petri dish, but rather a smooth side of the sample must be prepared so it can lay flat on the stage. This smooth sample is polished and is sometimes referred to as a puck.

Metallurgical Microscopes

Metallurgical microscopes are high power microscopes designed to view samples that do not allow light to pass through them. Reflected light shines down through the objective lenses providing magnification of 50x, 100x, 200x, and sometimes 500x. Metallurgical microscopes are utilized to examine micron level cracks in metals, very thin layers of coatings such as paint, and grain sizing.

Metallurgical microscopes are utilized in the aerospace industry, the automobile manufacturing industry, and by companies analyzing metallic structures, composites, glass, wood, ceramics, polymers, and liquid crystals.

This image of a piece of metal with scratches on it was captured under a metallurgical microscope at 100x magnification.

Polarizing Microscopes

Polarizing microscopes use polarized light along with transmitted and, or reflected illumination to examine chemicals, rocks, and minerals. Polarizing microscopes are utilized by geologists, petrologists, chemists, and the pharmaceutical industry on a daily basis.

All polarizing microscopes have both a polarizer and an analyzer. The polarizer will only allow certain light waves to pass through it. The analyzer determines the amount of light and direction of light that will illuminate the sample. The polarizer basically focuses different wavelengths of light onto a single plane. This function makes the microscope perfect for viewing birefringent materials.

This is Vitamin C captured under a polarizing microscope at 200x magnification.

If you are unsure which type of microscope might be best for your application, contact Microscope World.

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Nucleic Acid Sensing and Immunity - Part B

5 Perspectives: Possible Role of DNA Repair Players in Patterning Tissue and Organism

Drosophila and C. elegans have been widely used as model organisms by many developmental biologists across the world. However, they are relatively under-studied in relation to DDR. It is only our work coupled with a few others, which have attempted to define the roles of various DDR players in functions other than DNA damage in Drosophila, with a special emphasis on developmental themes. A separate piece of work conducted by us also posits that Drosophila rad51 has functions which can regulate tissue patterning ( Khan et al., 2017a,b ). There is emerging evidence from work done in C. elegans, which shows that Notch can modulate DDR by binding to ATM and inactivates it. This mode of regulation of DDR by Notch appears to be independent of its transcriptional activity, and appears to be conserved in humans ( Vermezovic et al., 2015 ). This is an example of how work done in nematodes has paved the way for further explorations in other organisms including humans. Interestingly, this study also shows how Notch appears to impair DDR signaling in the gonad cells of the nematode. Additionally, it also highlights the importance of using model organisms, to uncover tissue-specific relationships shared between complex signaling networks. This fact is especially important owing to different susceptibilities of various cells and tissues to DDR, which might be linked to their distinct cell cycle status during development (discussed in Section 2.4 ).

Agricultural and Biological

Agricultural engineers apply knowledge of engineering technology and science to agriculture and the efficient use of biological resources. In addition to creating advances in farming and agriculture, agricultural engineers apply engineering design and analysis to protecting natural resources, develop power systems to support agriculture, and provide environmental controls.


Most people take the sounds we hear every day for granted. But it may surprise you to learn that the creation of audio is a unique endeavor that blends both art and science. Did you ever stop to think how they created the sounds in a video game, a movie, tv show, or at a concert? there are literally thousands of different jobs available in this field that are as rewarding as they are challenging. There are many career choices in the field of audio engineering. Perhaps you are a musician, are interested in electronics and sound, or like the idea of working with people who produce and perform in the many fields of entertainment. You will find challenging and fulfilling work in audio engineering.

Bioengineering and Biochemical

Bioengineers study living systems and apply that knowledge to solve various problems. they study the safety of food supplies, keep desirable organisms alive in fermentation processes, and design biologically based sensors. Bioengineering is widely used to destroy waste and clean up contaminated soil and water. These engineers contribute greatly to human health and the environment.


Biomedical engineers study biology and medicine to develop technologies related to health care. they develop medical diagnostic machines, medical instruments, artificial organs, joint replacement parts, and prosthetic devices. Rapid advances in these areas will undoubtedly continue throughout your lifetime.

Ceramic and Materials

Ceramic and materials engineers solve problems by relying on their creative and technical skills, making useful products in many forms from common as well as exotic materials. Every day we use a multitude of these products. Each time we talk on the phone, use a computer, or heat food in a microwave oven, we are using products made possible by the inventions and designs of engineers working with ceramics and other materials.


Everything around us—including us—is made of chemicals. Chemical changes can be used to produce all kinds of useful products. Chemical engineers discover and manufacture better plastics, paints, fuels, fibers, medicines, fertilizers, semiconductors, paper, and all other kinds of chemicals. Chemical engineers also play an important role in protecting the environment, inventing cleaner technologies, calculating environmental impacts, and studying the fate of chemicals in the environment.


What would it feel like to have the expertise to build a school that could withstand an earthquake, a road system that puts an end to chronic traffic jams, or a sports stadium that offers everyone a great view? As a civil engineer, your job would be to oversee the construction of the buildings and infrastructure that make up our world: highways, skyscrapers, railways, bridges, and water reservoirs, as well as some of the most spectacular and high-profile of all engineering feats—think of the world’s tallest building, the towering Burj Khalifa in Dubai, or the Chunnel, the thirty-one-mile-long tunnel beneath the English Channel. Civil engineers are fond of saying that it’s architects who put designs on paper, but it’s engineers who actually get things built.


Computer engineering is the design, construction, implementation, and maintenance of computers and computer-controlled equipment for the benefit of humankind. Most universities offer computer engineering as either a degree program of its own or as a sub-discipline of electrical engineering. With the widespread use and integration of computers into our everyday lives, it’s hard to separate what an electrical engineer needs to know and what a computer engineer needs to know. Because of this, several universities offer a dual degree in both electrical and computer engineering.


As an electrical engineer, you could develop components for some of the most fun things in our lives (mP3 players, digital cameras, or roller coasters), as well as the most essential (medical tests or communications systems). This largest field of engineering encompasses the macro (huge power grids that light up cities, for example), as well as the micro (including a device smaller than a millimeter that tells a car’s airbags when to inflate).As an electrical engineer, you might work on robotics, computer networks, wire-less communications, or medical imaging—areas that are at the very forefront of technological innovation.


Environmental engineering is the study of ways to protect the environment. Most of us care deeply about stopping pollution and protecting our natural resources. Imagine yourself having more than just a passion for saving our environment, but also possessing the actual know-how to do something about these alarming problems! As an environmental engineer, you’ll make a real difference in the survival of our planet by finding ways of cleaning up our oceans, rivers, and drinking water, developing air pollution equipment, designing more effective recycling systems, or discovering safe ways to dispose of toxic waste.

Geological and Geophysical

Geological and geophysical engineers draw on the science of geology to study the earth, using engineering principles to seek and develop deposits of natural resources and design foundations for large buildings, bridges, and other structures. Related engineering fields include civil, mineral, mining, and petroleum.

Industrial/ Manufacturing

Industrial engineers determine the most effective ways to use people, machines, materials, information, and energy to make a product or to provide a service. Sometimes they are called “efficiency experts.” Manufacturing means making things. Manufacturing engineers direct and coordinate the processes for making things—from the beginning to the end. As businesses try to make products better and at less cost, it turns to manufacturing engineers to find out how. Manufacturing engineers work with all aspects of manufacturing from production control to materials handling to automation. the assembly line is the domain of the manufacturing engineer. Machine vision and robotics are some of the more advanced technologies in the manufacturing engineers’ toolkit.

Marine and Ocean

These engineering fields are closely related, and deal with the design of ocean vehicles, marine propulsion systems, and marine structures such as harbors, docks, and offshore drilling platforms. these engineers are exploring and developing the natural resources and transportation systems of the ocean. For example, 200 miles off the coast of Washington state, a research ship hovers on the sea’s surface, manipulated by navigational satellites hundreds of miles above. A thin cable of fiberoptic strands and electrical conductors connects the ship to a remotely piloted robotic vehicle on the seafloor 7,000 feet below as it shoots live, high-definition video of volcanic smoker vents and strange life-forms. The video is linked in real time to a communications satellite 22,500 miles above and, from there, into classrooms coast to coast.


As a mechanical engineer, you might develop a bike lock or an aircraft carrier, a child’s toy or a hybrid car engine, a wheelchair or a sailboat—in other words, just about anything you can think of that involves a mechanical process, whether it’s a cool, cutting-edge product or a life-saving medical device. Mechanical engineers are often referred to as the general practitioners of the engineering profession, since they work in nearly every area of technology, from aerospace and automotive, to computers and biotechnology.


Mining engineers study all phases of extracting mineral deposits from the earth. They design mines and related equipment and supervise their construction and operation. They also work to minimize the environmental effects of mining. These engineers supply energy and rare materials to meet the world’s needs.


Nuclear engineers harness the power of the atom to benefit humankind. They search for efficient ways to capture and put to beneficial use those tiny natural bursts of energy resulting from sub-atomic particles that break apart molecules. As a nuclear engineer, you may be challenged by problems in consumer and industrial power, space exploration, water supply, food supply, environment and pollution, health, and transportation. Participation in these broad areas may carry you into many exciting and challenging careers. These may include interaction of radiation with matter, radiation measurements, radioisotope production and use, reactor engineering, and fusion reactors and materials.


Petroleum engineers study the earth to find oil and gas reservoirs. They design oil wells, storage tanks, and transportation systems. They supervise the construction and operation of oil and gas fields. Petroleum engineers are researching new technologies to allow more oil and gas to be extracted from each well. They help supply the world’s need for energy and chemical raw materials.

Computer Science: Online Casinos Development

Are you a casino enthusiast? You know that playing casino can be fun and challenging, but you would like to do it anywhere? Well there is no need to worry because if you have an internet connection then you can have a good time in the online casinos. There are many online casinos available in the internet and it is important for you to consider some points before you choose one.

The design of the casino is a vital aspect for you to consider before you choose to play the casino game. Remember that the design of the casino is a very important factor for you to look at because you will know whether the casino will be easy to use or not. You also need to consider the design of the games because in a casino that you visit you may not be able to find the game you are looking for. If you play with online casinos then you can have fun and enjoy the game easily. So you need to think of the best casino design so that you can have a good experience while playing the game.


Small fruit growers are still learning to deal with a disastrous new invasive, SWD. It appears that another new drosophilid, AFF, will require attention as we attempt to clarify its ability to survive winters in the eastern United States (including the latitudes where winter survival becomes problematic), phenological development relative to fruit maturation, ability to attack fruit, and ecological relationships with SWD. In situations where control of AFF may be needed, the use of biological control may be at least as problematic as for SWD.

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