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What is the ionization energy? Definition and explanation ...

The ionization, in the literature too ionisation enthalpy or ionization called, gives the energy needed to remove an electron from an atom or molecule, which is in the gaseous state of matter.
Ionization generally describes the separation of an electron from an atom, e.g. by ionizing radiation. This results in a neutrally charged atom having a positive charge after removal of the electron. Because electrons are negatively charged. The 'removal' of this negative charge leads to a positive charge surplus in the atom.
Specified values ​​in the periodic table usually refer to the first ionization energy. This refers to the energy needed to remove the first, least strongly bound electron. Of course, more electrons, if any, can be removed from the atom. In this context we then speak of 'second ionization energy', 'third ionization energy', and so on. The energy required for this increases more and more with each electron to be removed.
The attraction of the atomic nucleus essentially determines the energy needed for ionization. The higher the attraction of the atomic nucleus to the electron, the more energy must be expended. Helium is the chemical element with the highest ionization energy. This is due in particular to the electron configuration or the electron shell of helium. The valence shell, that is, the outermost, electron-filled shell in the electron shell, is at the same time the only electron shell in helium. Thus, the attraction of the atomic nucleus on the electron is particularly high. In contrast to an element such as silver: With a total of five electron shells, the valence shell is located far farther from the nucleus, so that the attraction to the valence electrons is lower. However, it must also be taken into account that silver has a significantly higher atomic number. Thus, the attraction of the atomic nucleus is much stronger than with helium. Nevertheless, the lower force of attraction outweighs the electrons caused by the more distant valence shell. There are two rules to derive from this:
1. The ionization energy sinks within a group of the periodic table as new electron shells are added (thus the force of attraction of the atomic nucleus decreases to the more distant valence electrons).
2. The ionization energy increases within a period of the periodic table, because the atomic number increases (and thus the attraction of the atomic nucleus).


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