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Introduction to Life Science
It’s easy to distinguish between living and non-living things, right? Rocks, buildings, and cars are non-living things while bacteria, plants, butterflies, moss, and humans are all living things. What distinguishes the two is the ability to live things to grow and reproduce. Life Science is the scientific study of living things.
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It has many fields of study, such as –
- Botany – the study of plants
- Zoology – the study of animals
- Microbiology – the study of micro-organisms
- Cell Biology – the study of cells of living things
- Ecology – the study of how organisms interact with one another and their environment
- Genetics – the study of genes and heredity
- Paleontology – the study of fossils and evolution
Ecology High School Biology Class What is Ecology
What is Ecology? n Ecology – study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their physical environment.
The biosphere is the portion of Earth that support life. • air • water • land Organisms are adapted to survive in the conditions of their living & non-living environments.
Ecosystem Terms n Biotic Factors – the living factors in an organism’s environment n Examples: a) animals b) plants c) fungi d) protists e) bacteria
Ecosystem Terms n Abiotic Factors – all of the physical (non-living) aspects that belong to an organism’s environment. n Examples: a) soil (mineral), water, wind (air) n b) energy such as light or sound c) climate, weather, temperature
Levels of Organization 1. from simplest to 2. most 3. complex 4. 5. 6. Organism (individual) Population Biological community Ecosystem Biome Biosphere
Population- individual organisms of the same species living in the same geographic location. Example A school of fish How do available resources affect a population? Individual organisms must compete for food, water, mates and other resources to survive.
Biological Community- a group of populations that interact in the same geographic area at the same time. Example: Plants & animals that live in a park Ecosystem- a biological commuinity and all the abiotic factors that affect. Biome- a large group of ecosystems that share the same climate and biological communities. All biomes form the Biosphere.
Ecology Terms n Habitat – a place where an organism lives. n Niche – the role an organism has in its environment n Community - the groups of many different species that live together in a particular habitat.
Ecological Relationships n Competition – a biological interaction that occurs when two species attempt to use the same resource. n All organisms compete for resources in different ways. Example: Organisms compete for water in the desert. Plants typically have small, but very deep root systems.
Ecological Relationships n Predation – the act of one organism consuming another organism for food. n Example: cat (predator) mouse (prey)
Ecological Relationships n Predator – the animal being the aggressor (the animal doing the hunting). Predator: Crocodile n Prey: Turtle Prey – the animal being the defender (the animal that is being hunted).
Ecological Relationships n Symbiosis – a relationship in which two organisms live together in close association. 3 Kinds 1. Mutualism 2. Commensalism 3. Parasitism
Ecological Relationships n n 1) Mutualism - a symbiotic relationship in which both participating species benefit. Example: aphids and ant colonies
Ecological Relationships n 2) Commensalism - a symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped. Ex. Moss growing on a tree
Ecological Relationships n 3) Parasitism – a relationship in which one organism benefits and another organism is harmed n Parasite benefits host is hurt. n Ex. Tick on a dog Tapeworm
Principles of Ecology n Section 2 - Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem
Energy Flow in Ecosystems Autotrophs ( primary producers)- is an organism that captures energy from sunlight or inorganic substance to produce food in an ecosystem. Heterotrophs (consumer) – is an organism that obtains energy by consuming other organisms.
Consumer Types: 1) Herbivore – feed directly on green plants. n Examples: deer, cattle, turtles 2) Carnivore – feed on other animals. n Examples: lions, hawks, wolves 3) Omnivore – feed on plants and animals. n Examples: bears, raccoons, crayfish, humans
How do detritivores help an ecosystem? n They decompose organic materials in an ecosystem and return the nutrients to the soil, air, and water. Ex. hyenas, vultures, fungi, bacteria What would happen to our biosphere if we didn’t have them?
Let’s Review. A) The primary source of energy is the sun. B) Producers are organisms that capture light energy and convert it into chemical energy. C) Consumers are organisms that consume producers or other consumers for energy. D) Decomposers are organisms that consume producers, consumers, and other decomposers for energy once they have died.
Energy Flow in Ecosystems n Every living organism requires energy. n Trophic Level - shows how energy gets transferred from organism to organism. n Sun Producer Consumer Decomposer
Energy Flow in Ecosystems n Food Chain – a simple model that show energy flows through an ecosystem.
Food Chains: n 1 st level n Producers - make their own food. n 2 nd level n Herbivores - eat primary producers. n 3 rd level n Carnivores - eat herbivores. n Omnivores - eat both herbivores and carnivores. n 4 th level n Decomposers - eat all dead organisms.
Energy Flow in Ecosystems n Food Web – a model that show all the possible feeding relationships in an ecosystem
Ecosystem Energy n The energy that is stored at each trophic level is about 1/10 that of the level below it. n By showing the declining amounts of energy in each of the trophic levels an ecological pyramid can be formed.
90% of the available energy is used by the organism at each level, only 10% is available to the next level The number decreases at each level because less energy is available to support organisms.
Biomass-total mass of living matter at each trophic level. The number decreases at each level because less energy is available to support organisms.
Biomagnification is the sequence of processes in an ecosystem by which higher concentrations of a particular chemical, such as the pesticide DDT, are reached in organisms higher up the food chain, generally through a series of prey-predator relationships.
Principles of Ecology Section 3 -Cycling of Matter • Anything that takes up space and has mass • Neither created or destroyed • Cycles within any ecosystem and is reused • Provides the nutrients needed for organism to function – ex. carbon, nitrogen
MATTER CYCLES WITHIN ECOSYSTEMS • • In any ecosystem, organisms obtain the matter that they need to build their organic substance from other organisms and from their surroundings. Ex. Nutrients in the green grass pass to the cow that eats the grass. The cycle continues until the last consumer dies. Detritivores return the nutrients to the cycle, and the process begins again.
Key Concepts Biogeochemical cycles: the combination of processes that exchange matter through the biosphere. Water Cycle, Carbon Cycle, Nitrogen Cycle
Lesson Objectives How do nutrients move through biotic and abiotic parts of an ecosystem? Why are nutrients important to living organisms? What are the biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and how are they alike
http: //www. css. cornell. edu/faculty/hmv 1/watrshed/Etrans. htm 90% of water vapor evaporates from oceans, lakes, & rivers. The evaporation of water from the surface of plant leaves (10%) = TRANSPIRATION __________ The return of water to the surface in the form of rain, snow, sleet, hail, etc. = PRECIPITATION __________
What are the carbon and oxygen cycles? Do you remember what happens during photosynthesis? CO 2 Producers change ___ into glucose and O 2 release ___.
4 main CARBON reservoirs in BIOSPHERE CO 2 in atmosphere 1. In atmosphere ______ as CO 2 gas CO 2 in Ocean ocean as dissolved CO 2 gas 2. In _______ land 3. On _______ in organisms, rocks, soil Underground 4. _______as coal & petroleum (fossil fuels) and calcium BIOLOGY Miller and Levine Prentice Hall 2006 carbonate in rocks
Where does CO 2 in atmosphere come from? CO 2 in atmosphere Volcanic activity 1. ________ CO 2 in Ocean Human activity (burning fossil fuels) 2. _______ Cellular respiration 3. _________ 4. Decomposition ______ of dead organisms BIOLOGY Miller and Levine Prentice Hall 2006
WHY IS CARBON IMPORTANT? BUILDING BLOCKS Found in all the ___________ of cells: carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids Image by Riedell http: //web. jjay. cuny. edu/
WHY IS CARBON IMPORTANT? Carbon in CO 2 provides the atoms for GLUCOSE PHOTOSYNTHESIS _____ production during _________. . . the fuel that all living things depend on. http: //www. science. siu. edu/plant-biology/PLB 117/JPEGs%20 CD/0076. JPG http: //www. biologyclass. net/mitochondria. jpg
NITROGEN CYCLE Section 3 -3 N 2 in Atmosphere NH 3 NO 3 and NO 2 - BIOLOGY Miller and Levine Prentice Hall 2006
WHY IS NITROGEN IMPORTANT? NITROGEN _________make BASES DNA and RNA. Nitrogen is needed to make proteins. Image by Riedell http: //web. jjay. cuny. edu/
acarpi/NSC/12 -dna. htm Image by Riedell
78% of the atmosphere is made up of NITROGEN CAN’T use the nitrogen BUT we _____ directly from the air. N 2 gas is captured from the air by bacteria that live in water, the soil, or grow on the roots of some plants. Image by Riedell http: //web. jjay. cuny. edu/
acarpi/NSC/12 -dna. htm _________ Image by Riedell
The process of capturing and changing (“fixing”) nitrogen into a form that plants can use is called _________. Nitrogen Fixation Consumers get nitrogen by eating producers or other animals that contain nitrogen.
When animals die and decay or urinate the nitrogen returns to the soil as ammonia. Other bacteria NITRATES (NO 3 - ) in the soil convert ammonia into _______ NITRITES (NO 2 -) & _________which plants can also use. The nitrogen we need for proteins, ATP, and nucleic acids comes from the ______ FOOD WE EAT ______ NOT THE AIR we breathe! Image from: http: //www. utdallas. edu/images/departments/biology/misc/gonzalez-image. jpg and http: //www. cibike. org/Cartoon. Eating. gif modified by Riedell
NITROGEN CYCLE Section 3 -3 N 2 in Atmosphere NH 3 NO 3 and NO 2 - BIOLOGY Miller and Levine Prentice Hall 2006
Some bacteria change nitrogen compounds into nitrogen gas that’s released into the atmosphere. THIS PROCESS IS CALLED DENITRIFICATION _________
Primary Succession n Begins in a place without any soil n n n Sides of volcanoes Landslides Flooding Starts with the arrival of living things such as lichens that do not need soil to survive Called PIONEER SPECIES
http: //botit. botany. wisc. e du http: //www. saguaro-
Secondary Succession n Begins in a place that already has soil and was once the home of living organisms Occurs faster and has different pioneer species than primary succession Example: after forest fires
Climax Community n n A stable group of plants and animals that is the end result of the succession process Does not always mean big trees n n Grasses in prairies Cacti in deserts
Population Dynamics A population is a group of organisms of the same species that live in a specific area.
Population Distribution- can have an affect on how population is sampled, which can affect density measurement. Clumped most common because resources are usually clumped.
What limiting factors are density independent? Recall that population density is the number of members of a population per unit. A density-independent factor is any factor in the environment that does not depend on population density like natural disasters. ex. hurricanes, oil spills
A density – dependent factor is any factor in the environment that depends on population density. Ex. disease, competition, parasites, and predators.
What factors affect a population’s growth rate? Emigration – the number of individuals moving away from a population. Immigration – the number of individuals moving into a population.
Logistic Growth Populations cannot grow exponentially forever. At some point, the rapidly increasing population will strain available resources. Logistic growth occurs when the population’s growth slows or stops at the population’s carrying capacity.
Intro (Morphology & Physiology of Living Things)
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FED. SCHOOL OF DENTAL TECH. AND THERAPY, ENUGU COURSE CODE: – STB 111 COURSE TITLE: – Morphology & Physiology of Living Things (INTRODUCTION) ————————————————- LECTURE ONE NOTES Introduction General Biology:- Biology as a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. It is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines.
Among the most important topics as contained in Biology are five unifying principles that can be said to be the fundamental axioms of modern biology:- 1) Cells are the basic unit of life. 2) New species and inherited traits are the product of evolution. 3) Genes are the basic unit of heredity. 4) An organism regulates its internal environment to maintain a stable and constant condition. 5) Living organisms consume and transform energy. Morphology & Physiology:-
The study of Morphology and Physiology of living things can be traced as far back to early Egyptian civilization (based on their belief that only gods linked with living things/organims i. e. plants & animals) that influences lives. This belief was the epitome of the study of morphology & physiology of living things/organisms which made a Greek great philosopher (Aristotle) then taught the importance of studying the morphologic & physiologic characteristics of living things/organisms, in an attempt to classify them based on the significant values attached to them
Morphology:- Morphology stems from the Greek words “morphe” meaning “form” and “logos” meaning “study. ” And in biological science, it refers to the form and structure of an organism, or one of the organism’s parts. In linguistics, morphology looks at the structure and form of words in a language, the derivation of words and how compound words are formed. What the two usages have in common is the study of form and structure. Thus, the term “morphology” most generally refers to the study of things in their various forms, including changes in form over time.
Morphology as a branch of bioscience dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features includes aspects of the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, and pattern) as well as the form and structure of the internal parts like bones and organs. The biological concept of morphology was developed by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1790) and independently by the German anatomist and physiologist Karl Friedrich Burdach (1800).
Although generally the field of morphology is divided into two distinct branches, which are:- * “Anatomy” is the study of the form and structure of internal features of an organism. * “Eidonomy” is the study of the form and structure of the external features of an organism. However, other branches do exist such as:- * ‘‘Comparative Morphology’’ Is analysis of the patterns of the locus of structures within the body plan of an organism, and forms the basis of taxonomical catorization. * ‘‘Functional Morphology’’ is the study of the relationship between the structure and function of morphological features. ‘‘Experimental Morphology’’ is study of the effects of external factors upon the morphology of organisms under experimental conditions, such as the effect of genetic mutation Summarily, it can be seen that:- The biological study of the form and structure of living things is called Morphology which deals with both the external and internal structures of the organisms and thus, it may be divided into two distinct branches: the anatomy and the eidonomy. Physiology:- This is in contrast to physiology, which deals primarily with function.
Physiology refers to all the activities taking place within the living organisms or how the different parts functions. It is chiefly concerned with the study of how living organisms function including such processes as nutrition, movement, and reproduction. Physiology is derived from a Latin word ‘‘pysiologia’’ meaning science of natural causes and phenomena. Thus, it is often described as the branch of biology dealing with the functions and activities of living organisms as well as functions of their component parts, that includes all physical and chemical processes.
The word “function” is important to the definition of physiology because physiology traditionally had to do with the function of living things while anatomy had to do with morphology, the shape and form, of things. Summarily, it can be seen that:- The branch of bioscience dealing with the study of the functions of form and structure of organisms as well as functions of their specific structural features is Physiology and is a science of wide scope. For instance:- * Some physiological studies are concerned with processes that go on within cells.
The physiology of cells is called cell physiology. * Other physiological studies deal with how tissues and organs work, how they are controlled and interact with other tissues and organs and how they are integrated within the living organisms. * Yet other physiological studies deal with how living organisms respond to their environment. For example, to extremes of temperature (in arctic conditions versus the desert), to changes in pressure (deep under the ocean versus weightless in space), etc. Fields of Application:-
Morphology Physiology as a branch of life science dealing with the study of gross structure of an organism or Taxon and its component parts, as well as how these gross structures and component parts functions (either interdependently or independently) is applied in the following fields of study:- a) Biology: – This involve either Morphology without reference to function (e. g. morphology of a cell, vertebrates, the central nervous system) a key hidden component of organic units, but not synonymous with or dependent upon (though theoretically almost completely dominated by) the (post)-modern ‘evolutionary synthesis’. ) Ecology:- Living Nature (Goethe), morphological population studies, phylogeny and ontogeny, The Nature of Things (David Suzuki) c) Linguistics:- Morphology with reference to language, grammar, syntax (e. g. inflection and the formation of compounds, semantics, phonology, comparative linguistic systems):- 1. O ‘Morphemes’ – the smallest units of grammar: roots, prefixes, and suffixes. 2. O Linguistic relativity – Noam Chomsky. 3. O Distributed Morphology – an architectural theory of grammar proposed in the early 1990s at MIT d) Histology:- Morphology as ‘universal symbolism’ (cf. istorical evolution-ism) temporal and spatial formulations, motives and directions of human development, of static and dynamic memory reporting, cyclical-cultural generations and re-generations, declines and inclines in human technology e) Sociology:- Morphology as basic ‘change through time,’ demonstrates dynamic formal effects of individual, structural, institutional and broader social-psychological changes f) Mythology:- Greek, Ovid – Metamorphoses, ‘Morpheus’: God of Dreams, son of Somnus, god of sleep. ) Other fields:- These includes Topology, Embryology, Systematics, Anthropology, Cognitive and Cultural Studies and studies in Complexity, Anatomy, Cytology, Economics, Filmmaking, Paleontology, Philosophy of Technology, Information and Communication theory. Uses of Morphology Physiology:- Amongst the significant uses of the knowledge and understanding of Morphology and Physiology of living things is it enables us know and understand:- 1) Uniform and non-uniform motion, as well as its constancy and indeterminacy. ) The morphology’ (Fanon), i. e. to find the place of language in human nature, culture and behaviour transformation (morpho-dynamic models), process thought and continuous action. 3) Shape shifting cyclical or stage theory knowledge from shape or configuration, as in a known face or facial features, physiognomy morphological principles of pattern recognition and perception, replication and duplication. 4) Pattern laws (cf. ‘patterns that connect’ – Bateson) applied to networks of human (and non-human). 5) Social phenomena (cf.
Latour), Aristotelian hylo-morphism. And others. Summary:- Morphology as the branch of science that studies the shape and structure of organisms as a whole, with plants, it investigates the structures and common organization of the root, stem, leaves and fruits and with animals and human beings, compares and analyzes their physical structure. Sub-branches of morphology includes:- * Anatomy, the study of the visible internal and external structures of living organisms, considering the forms of their macroscopic structures such as organs and organ systems. Histology, the study of the microscopic structure of the tissues that make up organs * Cytology, the study of the microscopic structure of the cells that make up tissues in an attempt to elucidate the physiological properties of cells, including their behaviors, interactions, and environment. This is otherwise called cell biology and the study is done on both the microscopic & molecular levels. Embryology, the study of all the phases between the fertilized egg (zygote) and the emergence of an independent organism. In an attempt to understand the significant role of the science of gene, heredity & variation of living organism (i. e. genetics) as it provides a significant tool in the investigation of the physiologic function of particular genes or the analysis of genetic interactions within a living organism. * Developmental Biology, the study of process by which living organisms grows and develops.
Though it originates in embryology, yet it is aimed at studying the significant genetic physiologic genetic control of cell growth, differentiation and morphogenesis, that gives rise to tissues, organs and organ systems. * Molecular biology, is the study of biology at a molecular level. This field overlaps with other areas of biology, particularly with genetics and biochemistry. Molecular biology chiefly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interrelationship of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis and learning how these interactions are regulated.
While, Physiology in the other hand as the branch of science that studies of both mechanical, physical & biochemical process of living organisms as well as the functions of shape and structure of organisms as a whole, with plants it investigates the functions of structures and common organization of the root, stem, leaves and fruits and with animals and human beings, compares and analyzes the various functions of their physical structures. Is aimed at understanding the significant sequence of how the structures in living organisms function as a whole.
It is important to know that the field of animal physiology extends the tools and methods of human physiology even to non-human species, because plant physiology borrows techniques from both research fields, which the study is shared with medically oriented disciplines such as neurology & immunology. Conclusively:- In Morphology and Physiology of living organisms, the theme of “structure to function” is central to biology. This is because, physiological studies have traditionally been divided into plant physiology and animal physiology, in which some principles of physiology are universal, no matter what particular organism being studied.
For example, what is learned about the physiology of yeast cells can also apply to human cells. Body Organization of Living Organisms (i. e. Body Building Blocks) The body of a living organism (be it an animal or a plant) is as a whole one organism. However, many parts make up the whole. In various levels of the body, there are a large number of parts contained within other parts. Thus, the body of a living organism is significantly organized in this sequence:- Atoms —–Molecules—— Cells ——- Tissues———Organs—— and Organ systems. Atoms: – Is the smallest possible piece of an element in the body that retains all the properties of that element, e. g. Hydrogen atom reacts the same as a barrel full of Hydrogen. It is a building block in the sense that when you put Two Hydrogen atoms together, you get a Hydrogen molecule, and if you add an atom of Oxygen to the Hydrogen molecule, you will create a molecule of water. Thus a molecule in the morphology of a living organism is a conglomerate of atoms put together. * Molecules: – The body of a living organism contains many different types f molecules that form the working parts called cells as well as substances produced by these working parts (i. e. cells) such as hormones. * Cells: – Are morphologically derived from a combination of molecules and can perform many important functions in the body of a living organism without which a living organism would not be able to survive and thrive. Each cell in the body of a living organism is capable of converting energy, digesting food, excreting waste, reproducing its own self as well as uptake of Oxygen. Note: – That no smaller component than the cell (be it in animals or plants) could perform all those functions.
That is why the cell is regarded basically as the ‘‘fundamental unit of life’’. * Tissues:- This is another level of body organization in living organisms due to aggregation and combination of several different types of cells, e. g. blood cells, nerve cells and muscle cells. Generally the body of a living organism is made of four basic classes of tissues namely, connective epithelial, muscle/fiber and nerve tissues respectively. * Organs: – As atoms make molecules, while molecules make up cells, cells make up a tissue. Also the aggregate of two or more kind of tissues working together makes up an organ.
Thus an organ is a part of the body of a living organism that performs a specialized physiologic function. * Organ System:- An organ system in a living organism is a group of specialized organs working together to achieve a major or significant physiologic need in the body of a living organism. The Living Cell Living cells are the basic building blocks of all life on Earth. All animals and plants consists of many billions of cells, which contain many organelles with specific cellular functions either commonly shared and some different.
In all living organisms cells are what build tissues, tissues build organs and organs build organ systems. In both plants and animals, the organ systems do functions together to support life in the living organism. Cell Definition:- A cell is defined as the smallest structural (i. e. morphologic & physiologic unit) of living organisms that can exist independently on its own (Jenny et al 2006). It is the significant microscopic factory of all living organisms, where thousands of chemical reactions happen in a carefully & sequentially controlled way (i. . physiologic activities—that enables the cells perform all tasks involved in being alive). Although, all living organisms are made up of cells, however, animal & plant cells have significant characteristic differences in so many ways. These differences are brought about due to the presence of dissimilar inclusions (i. e. internal components—which determines physiologic activities in an organism), & consequently influence the characteristics physical, structural /morphological presentation of an organism (i. e. external components dimension).
Thus:- 1) Bacteria: – A bacterium is a simple, single celled organism. All the bacteria found on the surface of this planet weigh more than any other species. They are very successful. 2) Insects: – A typical insect like a fly or a bee contains many hundreds of thousands of cells. Insects have very basic organ systems that support life and allow insects to reproduce. 3) Small mammals:- A small mammal, for example a rat contains many millions of cells organised into nine distinct organ systems similar to our own. 4) Humans: – A human contains many billions of cells.
Each hour of every day of our lives, we replace over one billion cells in our body. During puberty we produce even more cells. 5) Plants:- Just like in the animals, plants do as well contain many millions of cells organised into different smaller organs which an aggregate of these smaller organs culminated into the plant organ system. The Cell Theory Cell theory: – states that the cell is the fundamental unit of life, and that all living things are composed of one or more cells or the secreted products of those cells (e. g. shells). All cells arise from other cells through cell division.
In multicellular organisms, every cell in the organism’s body derives ultimately from a single cell in a fertilized egg. The cell is also considered to be the basic unit in many pathological processes. Additionally, the phenomenon of energy flow occurs in cells in processes that are part of the function known as metabolism. Finally, cells contain hereditary information (DNA) which is passed from cell to cell during cell division. The cell theory is a basic tenet of modern biology, first stated by Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann in 1838-39, that cells are the basic units of structure and function in living organisms.
Summarily the theory states that:- 1. All known living things are made up of cells. 2. The cell is structural functional unit of all living things. 3. All cells come from pre-existing cells by division, (i. e. generation does not occur). 4. Cells contain hereditary information which is passed from cell to cell during cell division. 5. All cells are basically the same in chemical composition. 6. All energy Flow (metabolism biochemistry) of life occurs within cells.