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Does exercising increase the rate at which UV rays are absorbed and cause affects?

Does exercising increase the rate at which UV rays are absorbed and cause affects?



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Does exercising while in sunlight affect the rate at which the human body absorbs and reacts to UV rays? As sunburn is the secretion of fluids, increased dilation of blood vessels and inflammation of skin would exercising (as it also increases blood vessel dilation for heat loss) accelerate the "sun-burn" process in skin?


The only pathways in which I would see more sensitivity to UV light would be

  1. If you were drenched in sweat and somehow the sweat focused the light/UV. This is highly unlikely as I don't believe any studies have been done to show that a water based solution causes a more intense sunburn.

(Here is a further explanation by another poster on wetness and sunburn https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/71263/why-does-wet-skin-sunburn-faster )

  1. The increased dilation of blood vessels results in a more red thus darker and more absorbent skin tone leading to more of a sunburn

Both of these are highly unlikely of increasing the sunburn, so in my opinion exercising shouldn't increase UV absorption or make a sunburn worse. Hope that helps.


How does the sun and UV cause cancer?

Ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a source of energy that is released naturally by the sun and artificially from sunbeds.

There are two main types of UV rays that damage our skin . Both types can cause skin cancer:

  • UVB is responsible for most sunburns.
  • UVA penetrates deep into the skin. It ages the skin but contributes much less towards sunburn.

A third type of UV ray, UVC, could be the most dangerous of all, but it is completely blocked out by the ozone layer and doesn’t reach the earth's surface.

You can’t tell whether you are at risk of burning by the temperature outside . This is because you can’t feel UV rays. People can still burn on cool or cloudy days, if the UV index is 3 or more.

In the UK, the sun’s UV rays are the strongest between 11am and 3pm from mid-March to mid-October. The UV index tells you how strong the sun’s UV rays are each day.


UV Radiation & Your Skin

Understanding the basics about UV radiation and how it damages your skin is an important first step in learning how to safeguard yourself against skin cancer.

The good news is that the danger posed by UV radiation can be greatly reduced by you! Yes, you can still enjoy outdoor activities while limiting your skin cancer risk by taking simple, smart protective measures.

What is UV radiation?

UV radiation is part of the natural energy produced by the sun. On the electromagnetic spectrum, UV light has shorter wavelengths than visible light, so your eyes can’t see UV, but your skin can feel it. Tanning beds also emit UV radiation.

Two types of UV light are proven to contribute to the risk for skin cancer:

  • Ultraviolet A (UVA) has a longer wavelength, and is associated with skin aging.
  • Ultraviolet B (UVB) has a shorter wavelength and is associated with skin burning.

While UVA and UVB rays differ in how they affect the skin, they both do harm. Unprotected exposure to UVA and UVB damages the DNA in skin cells, producing genetic defects, or mutations, that can lead to skin cancer (as well as premature aging.) These rays can also cause eye damage, including cataracts and eyelid cancers.


Biology - Non-communicable disease and the CNS

There is a period of active cell division, when mitosis takes place and the number of cells increases.
This is followed by a long period of non-division called interphase. During this time, the cells get bigger, increase their mass, carry out normal cell activities and replicate their DNA ready for the next division.

Cancer-causing chemicals such as these are called carcinogens.

2. Ionising radiation, such as UV light and X-rays, can also interrupt the normal cell cycle and cause tumours to form. E.G. Melanomas appear when there is uncontrolled growth of a pigment-forming cell in the skin as a result of exposure to UV light from the sun.

Used to treat disease - e.g. cancers (drug delivery)

Cheaper to develop compared to other drugs since the same technology is used.

Used to detect disease in plants and animals. Level of infection indicated by colour intensity (ELIZA test).

Cons:
Developing different monoclonal antibodies to deliver drugs to treat other diseases
(difficult / expensive technology)


3. Age

UV exposure may account for up to 80% of visible signs of aging in the skin including dry appearance, scalping, wrinkling [15] and impaired pigmentation, and photoaging correlates with cancer risk. A 2012 study of Central Europeans, for example, showed those with early signs of wrinkling on the neck were over four times more susceptible to melanoma than the general population. Freckling on the back also showed over three times the risk [21]. Cutaneous photoaging and melanoma risk both correlate with age and UV exposure. The average age of melanoma diagnosis is about 55 and incidence varies worldwide from five to over 60 cases per 100,000 people per year [12]. Although melanoma is a malignancy mostly diagnosed in the fifth and sixth decade of life, one fifth of cases occur in young adults [36,37]. It is important to note, however, that the UV exposure and accumulation of DNA damage that underlie melanoma formation begin with sun exposure early in youth, which is why sun protection in the pediatric years is so important. There is a significant correlation of melanoma risk with excessive sun exposure before adolescence, perhaps contributed to by structural anatomical differences between the skin of children and adults making it easier for UV to penetrate [38]. Childhood UV exposure also increases the risk of young adult melanoma (melanoma under the age of 30) by over three times, showing how exposure can accelerate the process of carcinogenesis [39]. Furthermore, a new study published in 2014 of over three million people in Sweden showed that accumulation of UV damage begins as early as in the neonate, with melanoma incidence increased in those born in the spring and summer versus those born in the fall or winter [40]. Indeed, some estimates indicate that up to 80% of lifetime UV exposure occurs before the age of 20 because of the outdoor recreational habits of children.

This risk for melanoma among the middle-aged population has risen in the past few decades. An epidemiologic study in Minnesota found an incidence of 60 cases per 100,000 in 2009 compared to just eight per 100,000 in 1970 that is a 24-fold increase in risk for this population. Another unfortunate finding is the steady increase in occurrence in young adults, particularly for young women in the United States (US). Whereas young American women aged 15� had a melanoma incidence rate of 6 out of 100,000 cases in 1973, their rate more than doubled to 14 out of 100,000 cases per year in 2006 [41]. Because of ongoing recreational UV trends such as increased use of artificial tanning sources, melanoma rates are expected to continue to rise [37], making this disease an increasing public health threat.


Ozone: Good Up High, Bad Nearby

WHAT IS OZONE ANYWAY?

Ozone (O3) is made naturally in the atmosphere when three oxygen atoms join together to form a colorless gas. Ozone can have good or bad effects, depending on where it’s located in the atmosphere. One way to remember this is, “good up high, bad nearby.”

GOOD UP HIGH

The “Good” Ozone Layer: Earth’s Sunscreen. The earth is wrapped in layers of air called the atmosphere. “Good” ozone is in the earth’s upper atmosphere, 10 to 30 miles above the surface. Life couldn’t exist without this protective ozone, which is also called the “ozone layer.” The sun gives off light, heat, and other types of radiation. Too much UV (ultraviolet) radiation can cause skin cancer, cataracts, and harm plants and animals. Ozone high in the atmosphere absorbs, or takes in, some of the sun’s harmful UV rays before they reach the ground. Just as sunscreen helps protect your skin from getting burned, ozone up high works like earth’s sunscreen.

THE OZONE HOLE IS NOT A HOLE

Although we say “hole in the ozone layer” or “ozone hole,” there’s no actual hole. Instead, the protective layer contains less good ozone than it used to. This thinning is found all over the earth, but the biggest losses are over the North and South Poles. That’s because ozone destruction is worse when it’s very cold. To see current levels of ozone over the South Pole, go to: ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov. The trouble with ozone destruction starts when certain chemicals used in air conditioners, fire extinguishers, insulating foams, and solvents are let out during use. These chemicals eventually reach the upper atmosphere and are broken down by the sun’s radiation, releasing chlorine and bromine atoms. These atoms take away one of the oxygen atoms from ozone and use them to make other substances. Chlorine and bromine atoms are catalysts, meaning they can speed up a chemical reaction without changing, and can repeat the destructive cycle again with another ozone molecule. So one chlorine or bromine atom can destroy thousands and thousands of ozone molecules, causing ozone to disappear much faster than nature can replace it. People often confuse the ozone hole with global warming, but they are two different problems.

IS ANYONE DOING ANYTHING ABOUT THE OZONE HOLE (THAT’S NOT A HOLE)?

The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty that protects the ozone layer by phasing out the manufacture and use of ozone-depleting chemicals. It was enacted in 1989, and all of the countries in the world have signed it. Many ozone-depleting chemicals are now illegal to use, or are only used in small quantities. Because of the Montreal Protocol, levels of most ozone-depleting chemicals in the atmosphere have slowly gone down. Based on current trends, scientists today expect
the hole to return to 1980 levels by 2070. Today, any products in the US containing CFCs and other ozone-depleting chemicals must have warning labels. The US also prohibits the release of refrigerants used in car and home air conditioners into the air because they still use ozonedepleting chemicals.

WHY CAN’T WE JUST MAKE MORE OZONE?

Ozone molecules are constantly being made and destroyed by the sun’s ultraviolet light in natural processes. Normally, the amount made and the amount destroyed is about the same, so nothing changes. Think of the amount of ozone as the water level in a bathtub with the faucet running and the drain open. If you turn on the water just right, you can make the amount of water leaving the bathtub equal to the amount coming in, so that the water level never changes. But right now, the drain has gotten faster, and the amount of ozone destroyed is more than the ozone being made. A big reason we can’t make more ozone to send into the upper atmosphere is because it would take a LOT of energy. In the atmosphere, this huge amount of energy comes from the sun. We also don’t have a way to transport the ozone to the right places in the atmosphere. Since we can’t make more ozone, the solution is to slow the flow down the drain back to its normal rate. And the only way to do that is to stop using ozone-depleting chemicals.

BAD NEARBY

What Causes “Bad” Ozone? “Bad” ozone is found at ground level. In cities, it’s made when emissions from vehicles, power plants, chemical plants, and other sources react with heat and sunlight. The hotter the day and the stronger the sun, the more ground-level ozone is formed. That’s why ground-level ozone is usually worse on windless, hot summer afternoons. High levels of groundlevel ozone are mainly a concern for people from April 1–September 30. You’re most likely to find high levels of “bad” ozone in urban areas. You might hear it called “smog.” However, other areas can also have high ozone levels when winds blow pollution hundreds of miles from their original sources.

HOW DOES “BAD” OZONE AFFECT ME?

Even at low levels, breathing ozone can cause chest pains, coughing, nausea, throat irritation, and congestion. It can also worsen heart and lung diseases, like emphysema, bronchitis, and asthma. The more ozone pollution a person breathes, the
more permanent damage it can do to their lungs. Healthy people can also find it harder to breathe when exposed to ozone pollution. Because it usually forms in hot weather, anyone who spends time outdoors in the summer may be affected, particularly children, older people, outdoor workers, and people exercising. Millions of Americans live in areas where ozone levels are higher than the national health standards, and should pay attention to ozone levels when the weather is hot and sunny.

WAYS TO PROTECT YOUR HEALTH ON BAD OZONE DAYS:

  • Use the Air Quality Index (AQI). The AQI uses colors and numbers to tell you how much pollution is in the air: www.airnow.gov.
  • Use the EPA’s Activity Guidelines at your school and sports practices to keep your kids healthy: www.epa.gov/airnow/flag/school-chart-2014.pdf.
  • Do outdoor activities early in the morning and after 6 p.m.
  • Pay attention to any breathing or lung problems you might have.

HOW ARE WE DEALING WITH OZONE POLLUTION?

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require the US Environmental Protection Agency, the states, and cities to carry out programs that reduce emissions of ozone-forming chemicals from sources like cars, industry, power plants, and consumer products. Power plants are reducing emissions, companies are developing cleaner cars and fuels, many gas stations are using special nozzles at the pumps to recapture gasoline vapors, and vehicle inspection programs are being improved to reduce emissions.

WHAT CAN I DO?

We can control some things, and some things we can’t. Here are some things you can do. And remember, lots of small steps add up to big differences!

TO LIMIT “BAD,” NEARBY OZONE
  • Keep your car tuned-up and running well.
  • Carpool, use mass transit, walk, bicycle, and plan trips efficiently to reduce driving, especially on hot summer days.
  • Be careful not to spill gas when filling up your car or gas-powered lawn equipment. During the summer, fill your gas tank during cooler evening hours.
  • Make sure your car’s tires are properly inflated and your wheels are aligned.
  • Participate in your local utility’s energy conservation programs.
  • Seal containers of household cleaners, workshop solvents, and garden chemicals to prevent chemicals from evaporating into the air. Dispose of them properly.
TO PROTECT “GOOD” OZONE UP HIGH
  • Have your car, home air conditioner, and refrigerator checked for leaks.
  • Make sure that the technicians working on your air conditioners and refrigerator are certified to recover the refrigerant, as required by law.
  • Find out from your local government the best way to get rid of old refrigerators and air conditioners.

Fact: Water or swimming does not transmit the COVID-19 virus

The COVID-19 virus does not transmit through water while swimming. However, the virus spreads between people when someone has close contact with an infected person.

WHAT YOU CAN DO:

Avoid crowds and maintain at least a 1-metre distance from others, even when you are swimming or at swimming areas. Wear a mask when you&rsquore not in the water and you can&rsquot stay distant. Clean your hands frequently, cover a cough or sneeze with a tissue or bent elbow, and stay home if you&rsquore unwell.


Contents

UVB radiation with a wavelength of 290–315 nanometers penetrates uncovered skin and converts cutaneous 7-dehydrocholesterol to previtamin D3, which in turn becomes vitamin D3. [12] [13] [14] UVB radiation does not penetrate glass, so exposure to sunshine indoors through a window does not produce vitamin D. [15] Time of day, time of year, geographic latitude, ground altitude, cloud cover, smog, skin melanin content, and sunscreen are among the factors that greatly affect UV intensity and vitamin D synthesis, [14] making it difficult to provide general guidelines. It has been suggested by some researchers, for example, that adequate amounts of vitamin D can be produced with moderate sun exposure to the face, arms and legs, averaging 5–30 minutes twice per week without sunscreen. (The darker the complexion, or the weaker the sunlight, the more minutes of exposure are needed, approximating 25% of the time for minimal sunburn. Vitamin D overdose is impossible from UV exposure the skin reaches an equilibrium where the vitamin degrades as fast as it is created.) [14] [16] [17] Individuals with limited sun exposure need to include good sources of vitamin D in their diet or take a supplement.

The only way to quantify adequate levels of vitamin D is with a serum 25(OH)D3 (calcifediol) test. [18] In the United States, serum 25(OH)D3 was below the recommended level for more than a third of white men in a 2005 study, with serum levels even lower in women and in most minorities. This indicates that vitamin D deficiency may be a common problem in the US. [19] Australia and New Zealand have had similar findings, which indicate insufficient protection against rickets for children and osteoporosis for adults. [20]

Over the past several years, levels of ultraviolet radiation have been tracked at over 30 sites across North America as part of the United States Department of Agriculture's UVB Monitoring and Research Program at Colorado State University. The first map at right shows levels of UVB radiation in June 2008, expressed in Vitamin D Equivalents. [21]

Using satellite data, measurements from the European Space Agency produce similar maps expressed in units of the widely followed UV Index, for locations around the world. [22] Effects of UV-radiation at high latitudes, where snow stays on the ground into early summer and the sun then remains at a low position even at its zenith, have been reviewed by Meyer-Rochow. [8]

Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun is a source of vitamin D. One minimal erythemal dose of sunlight UV radiation provides the equivalent of about 20,000 IU of vitamin D2, taken as an oral supplement. [ citation needed ] If an adult's arms and legs are exposed to a half minimal erythemal UV radiation, it is the same as taking 3,000 IU of vitamin D3 through an oral supplement. This exposure of 10–15 minutes, on a frequency of two to three times per week, will cause the adult's skin to produce enough vitamin D. It is not necessary to expose the face to the UV, as facial skin provides little vitamin D3. Individuals whose metabolism makes taking oral vitamin D ineffective are able, through exposure to an ultraviolet lamp that emits UV-B radiation, to achieve a 25 (OH) D blood level. [23]

Three benefits of UV exposure are production of vitamin D, improvement in mood, and increased energy. [24]

UVB induces production of vitamin D in the skin at rates of up to 1,000 IUs per minute. This vitamin helps to regulate calcium metabolism (vital for the nervous system and bone health), immunity, cell proliferation, insulin secretion, and blood pressure. [25] In low and middle income countries, foods fortified with vitamin D are "practically nonexistent." Most people in the world depend on the sun to get vitamin D. [26]

There are not many foods that naturally have vitamin D. [27] Examples are cod liver oil and oily fish. If people cannot get sunlight, then they will need 1,000 IU of vitamin D per day to stay healthy. [28] A person would have to eat oily fish three or four times per week in order to get enough vitamin D from that food source alone.

People with higher levels of vitamin D tend to have lower rates of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke and tend to have lower blood pressure. However, it has been found that vitamin D supplementation does not improve cardiovascular health or metabolism, so the link with vitamin D must be in part indirect. [ citation needed ] People who get more sun are generally healthier, and also have higher vitamin D levels. It has been found that ultraviolet radiation (even UVA) produces nitric oxide (NO) in the skin, and nitric oxide can lower blood pressure. High blood pressure increases the risk of stroke and heart disease. Although long-term exposure to ultraviolet contributes to non-melanoma skin cancers that are rarely fatal, it has been found in a Danish study that those who get these cancers were less likely to die during the study, and were much less likely to have a heart attack, than those who did not have these cancers. [29]

People in certain situations, such as people with intellectual disabilities and neurodevelopmental disorders who stay inside most of the time have low vitamin D levels. Getting enough vitamin D can help stave off "autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular disease, many types of cancer, dementia, types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, and respiratory tract infections." [30]

Fetuses and children who do not get enough vitamin D can suffer from "growth retardation and skeletal deformities." [27]

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is least prevalent in the sunniest regions. [31] [32] [33] Exposure to the ultraviolet-B radiation of sunlight appears to be most important and this may operate via vitamin D synthesis. [34]

Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation present in sunlight is an environmental human carcinogen. The toxic effects of UV from natural sunlight and therapeutic artificial lamps are a major concern for human health. The major acute effects of UV irradiation on normal human skin comprise sunburn inflammation erythema, tanning, and local or systemic immunosuppression. [35] The most deadly form, malignant melanoma, is mostly caused by indirect DNA damage from UVA radiation. This can be seen from the absence of a direct UV signature mutation in 92% of all melanoma. [36] UVC is the highest-energy, most-dangerous type of ultraviolet radiation, and causes adverse effects that can variously be mutagenic or carcinogenic. [37]

Despite the importance of the sun to vitamin D synthesis, it is prudent to limit the exposure of skin to UV radiation from sunlight [38] and from tanning beds. [39] According to the National Toxicology Program Report on Carcinogens from the US Department of Health and Human Services, broad-spectrum UV radiation is a carcinogen whose DNA damage is thought to contribute to most of the estimated 1.5 million skin cancers and the 8,000 deaths due to metastatic melanoma that occur annually in the United States. [38] [40] The use of sunbeds is reported by the World Health Organization to be responsible for over 450,000 cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and over 10,000 cases of melanoma every year in the U.S., Europe, as well as Australia. [41] Lifetime cumulative UV exposure to skin is also responsible for significant age-associated dryness, wrinkling, elastin and collagen damage, freckling, age spots and other cosmetic changes. The American Academy of Dermatology advises that photoprotective measures be taken, including the use of sunscreen, whenever one is exposed to the sun. [42] Short-term over-exposure causes the pain and itching of sunburn, which in extreme cases can produce more-severe effects like blistering.

Several countries (such as Australia) provide public forecasts of UV irradiation in the form of the UV Index. The index can be used as a guide to the public of dangers from over-exposure to sunlight, especially at noon, when direct sunlight is at its most intense.

Light to the eyes, primarily blue-wavelength light, is important for the entrainment and maintenance of robust circadian rhythms. Exposure to sunlight in the morning is particularly effective it leads to earlier melatonin onset in the evening and makes it easier to fall asleep. Bright morning light has been shown to be effective against insomnia, premenstrual syndrome and seasonal affective disorder (SAD). [6]

Prolonged optical exposure to sunlight, especially intense ultraviolet light, may be linked to cortical cataracts, [43] [8] and high levels of visible light may be linked to macular degeneration.

However, significant daily exposure to bright light may be necessary for children to avoid myopia (nearsightedness). [44]

Short-term over-exposure can cause snow blindness, which is analogous to sunburn of the cornea, or can cause solar retinopathy, which is long-lasting retinal damage and vision impairment from sungazing. [45] [46]

Frequent exposure to the sun can cause yellow non-cancerous bumps on the middle part of the sclera of the eye, called pingueculae. It is most common in younger people, mainly those who spend a lot of their time outdoors and do not protect their eyes from UV rays. To decrease the risk of developing pingueculae, it may be wise to wear sunglasses when outdoors, even on overcast days. [47]

Blood levels of folate, a nutrient vital for fetal development, can be degraded by UV radiation, [48] raising concerns about sun exposure for pregnant women. [49] Lifespan and fertility can be adversely affected for individuals born during peaks of the 11-year solar cycle, possibly because of UV-related folate deficiency during gestation. [50]

According to a 2007 study submitted by the University of Ottawa to the US Department of Health and Human Services, there is not enough information to determine a safe level of sun exposure that imposes minimal risk of skin cancer. [51] In addition, there is not yet conclusive evidence on which components of ultraviolet radiation (UVA, UVB, UVC) are actually carcinogenic. [10] UVC is almost completely absorbed by the atmosphere and does not reach the surface in any appreciable quantity. [52] As a result, only the broad-spectrum combination (UVA, UVB, UVC) known as "ultraviolet radiation" is listed as a carcinogen the components are only "likely to become" known carcinogens. Solar radiation (sunlight) and sunlamps are listed as carcinogens because they contain ultraviolet radiation. [10]

There are currently no recommendations on a safe level of total lifetime sun exposure. [51] According to epidemiologist Robyn Lucas at Australian National University, analysis of lifespan versus disease shows that far more lives worldwide could be lost to diseases caused by lack of sunlight than to those caused by too much, [54] and it is inappropriate to recommend total avoidance of sunlight. [55]

Over thousands of years, in many climate zones, genetic selection has helped indigenous human populations adapt toward skin pigmentation levels that provide a healthy level of UV exposure. This largely explains the tendency toward darker-skinned populations in the sunniest tropical environments, and lighter skin tones in less-sunny regions and for those who most need vitamin D for rapid bone growth, specifically children and reproductive-age women. The map to the right illustrates the geographic distribution of skin color for native populations prior to 1940, based on von Luschan's chromatic scale. These long-term adaptations for optimal health can be confounded by patterns of food, clothing and shelter, especially at a time when large populations have migrated far from the climates for which their skin was genetically adapted. [56] [57]


Effect of Color of Light on the Rate of Photosynthesis: Lab Explained

Photosynthesis is the process in which plants go through to produce energy in the form of glucose required to survive. It is a chemical reaction that involves the use of carbon dioxide, water, and light. This process of photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts that are found in the leaves of the plant.

Chloroplasts are small structures that contain a green pigment called chlorophyll. According to BBCbitesize.com, the process involves carbon dioxide entering the leaf through the stomata, located on its underside. Water is absorbed by the plant’s root cells, and transported to the rest of the plant through the use of xylem vessels.

As well as those two components, a plant needs sunlight to undergo the process of photosynthesis. With these three ingredients, photosynthesis occurs, releasing oxygen as a waste product and creating the glucose needed by the plant to feed itself.

We will be conducting an experiment to determine how changing the frequency of the light that a plant uses affects the rate of its photosynthesis by placing discs of the plant in a bicarbonate soap solution under lights of different frequencies and recording the number of discs that float up after a certain amount of time.

The leaf discs will float up because of the oxygen emitted by them as a waste product of photosynthesis, and this will help us conclude the photosynthesis rate based on how much oxygen is released by the discs and how much time it takes them to float to the surface.

Research Question:

How does setting a light source of 100 watts to different frequencies (430–480 THz, 510–540 THz, 540–580THz, 610–670 THz, clear light) affect the number of leaf discs float out of 12 in a sodium bicarbonate solution when the amount of time of 10 minutes is kept the same?

My hypothesis is that if a light source of 100 watts above the plant discs is changed to the different frequencies of Red Light (430–480 THz), Blue Light (610–670 THz), Yellow Light (510–540 THz), Green Light (540–580THz), and Clear Light, the number of leaf discs out of 12 floating in the bicarbonate solution over time will differ.

I predict that since, according to Edriaan Koening on sciencing.com, the pigments in a plant [1] – chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and β-carotene – all absorb wavelengths of the color blue and red the most, photosynthesis rate will increase in the plant discs under the red and blue lights, causing more of them to float after the period of time of 10 minutes compared to other colors of light. I presume that yes, setting the light source to a different light frequency will affect the number of discs floating after a period of time.

Independent variable (IV):

The independent variable in this experiment is the frequency of the light that will be used on the plant discs. We will attain different frequencies (Hz) of light by using different light filters on a light source of 100 watts above the plant. We will be using Red Light (430–480 THz), Blue Light (610–670 THz), Green Light (540–580THz), Yellow Light (510–540 THz), and Clear Light. We will create those frequencies by placing cellophane filters of each of the colors against the light source.

Dependent variable (DV):

By changing the independent variable, in this case, is the frequency of Red Light (430–480 THz), Blue Light (610–670 THz), Green Light (540–580THz), Yellow Light (510–540 THz), and Clear Light, the number of discs that float out of 12 will change over a time period of 10 minutes. This will be measured by counting the number of floating discs under different-colored lights after a certain amount of time which will be measured through the use of a timer. We will be conducting 2 trials to observe the floating of the plant discs for each of the colored cellophane filters, and we will calculate the average of the data recorded for the time it took the plant discs to float to the surface.


Problems caused by global warming

Runaway increases in the temperature of the Earth can cause numerous problems. The Arctic and Antarctic ice caps can start to melt, thus raising the level of the ocean and flooding many coastal cities.

Increased temperature will reduce the amount of snowfall in the mountains. Many countries depend on the runoff of that snow to help irrigate their farms and provide food for their people.

Increased temperatures mean more energy in the air, and thus more violent storms.

Existing plants and crops depend on certain climate conditions to grow. Increased average temperatures can disrupt the growing process in many areas.