Career progression through biosafety levels?

Career progression through biosafety levels?

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Does a career in infectious disease typically progress through biosafety levels, or do people select one and specialize their training in procedures specific to those hazards?

That is, say Dr. Kliener wants to work on TB (BSL3). Does he first on have to work on MRSA (BSL2), which he has no interest in, just to build up experience? Or could he simply learn everything there is to know about TB and BSL3 lab procedure, don hairnet and gown, and get to work with someone who has experience under those conditions?

My short answer would be no, careers of people who study pathogens requiring biosafety training are not focused biosafety level.

More broadly, the people I know who study infections diseases are not motivated by the biosafety levels of their infections organisms. Rather, they are motivated by biological questions and their research that often require higher biosafty for their labs.

For example, the researchers featured in a recent (July 2015) National Geographic do not study Ebola because they want to work on a BSL-4 level virus. Rather they want to about learn about the disease from both a basic science and applied human heath perspective.

Your hypothetical Dr. Kliener would not work his way up the biosafety chain as a conscious. Let's say a young Mr. Kliener always wanted to study human health. He probably would have started doing research in a BSL-2 facility as an undergrad research assistant (See BSL-2 requirements here. As a grad student, he might have worked at a BSL-3 lab if he choose a good program while spending years focusing on a specific pathogen or system. By the time he became because a PI, he would have needed to find a BSL-3 facility for his research. He worked his way up, but not because he wanted to study dangerous pathogens. Rather his research question guided his path.

Other career tracks could end up using a BSL-3 facility, but not necessarily need the stop at a BSL-2 facility. For example, a hypothetical Dr. Fish may have started off loving the outdoors. She studied limnology as an undergrad and grad student and did not step foot inside a lab. However, when she began working as biologists for a state conservation agency, a novel fish virus emerged. She now is tasked with studying it. Her agency trained her to work in a BSL-3 lab so she could culture fish with their virologists.

Here's a nice little walk-through by the CDC on Biosafety levels. Biosafety level reflects that potential risk microbes used (or potentially present in the case of human tissue samples) in the laboratory present to researchers.

BSL-1 is for very low-risk organisms, like non-pathogenic E-coli. You can work with these guys on an open bench with minimal protection gear and be at little to no risk of disease.

BSL-2 is for low-risk organisms, like Staphylococcus, where risk of infection is low and/or infection is not likely cause serious consequences to researcher well-being. (Some dangerous blood-borne diseases can be worked with at BSL-2, because the additional pre-cautions do not impact transmission, which would only be likely to occur after a needle-stick or similar inoculation with infectious material).

BSL-3+ Labs are much less common, have much stricter requirements on facility structure and security and on researcher's protective equipment and procedures.

BSL-3 is for dangerous microbes that can be transmitted by aerosols, such as Tuberculosis.

BSL-4 facilities are rare, require expensive training and equipment and are used for deadly, exotic microbes, like Ebola.

Working in Biosafety Level 3 and 4 Laboratories: A Practical Introduction

This guide is based on a course developed in 2007 by the EU COST action group 28b which serves as a standard for many courses BSL3/4 training courses worldwide. The four-day course consists of lectures and practical training with the lecturers covering all the different possibilities of organising a BSL-3/4 lab including the adaptation to the local requirements of biosafety, safety at work, and social regulations.

This book covers bio-containment, hazard criteria and categorisation of microbes, technical specifications of BSL-3 laboratories and ABSL-3 laboratories, personal protective gear, shipping BSL-3 and BSL-4 organisms according to UN and IATA regulations, efficacy of inactivation procedures, fumigation, learning from a history of lab accidents, handling samples that arrive for diagnostic testing and bridging the gap between the requirements of bio-containment and diagnostics. Course participants can not only use the book for their actual training event but it will remain a useful reference throughout their career in BSL3/4 labs.

National Biosafety Authority – Deputy Director, Technical Services.

Get a free C.V. review by sending your C.V. to [email protected] or click the following link. Submit C.V.! use the subject heading REVIEW.

IMPORTANT: Read the application instructions keenly, Never pay for a job interview or application.

Click the Links Below to Get Job Updates.


(a) Job Specification

An officer at this level reports to the Director, Technical Services and is the head of Department responsible for coordinating functions of the department in regard to ensuring safety of human and animal health as well as provision of adequate level of protection of the environment.

The duties and responsibilities at this level entails

Biosafety Risk Assessment

i. Overseeing the GMO applications process including receiving, screening, acknowledgement and engagement of reviewers
ii. Overseeing the risk assessment for GMO applications is carried out in a scientific, transparent and predictable manner
iii. Overseeing socio-economics impact assessment during environmental release of GMO applications is done
iv. Ensuring confidentiality of Business Information in GMO applications is maintained
v. The Deputy Director shall serve as the Contact Person for Emergency measures to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety.
vi. Coordinate the reviews technical papers, reports and other submissions to the board and other stakeholders.
vii. Assisting the Director in developing technical board agenda and technical board paper in the area of biosafety risk assessment and BCH activities.
viii. Mentoring and coaching of biosafety staff within the Department
ix. Appraisal of officers that directly and indirectly report to the Deputy Director
x. Ensuring the setting, implementation and monitoring of Performance contracting within the department
xi. Ensuring preparation of budgets proposals, procurement and work plans for the department

Biosafety Education and Awareness

i. Ensure guidelines and procedures related to biosafety training of professionals and competencies are developed
ii. Advising the Director on the establishment and operationalization of Institutional Biosafety Committees (IBCs) in research institutions engaged in GMO research-related activities.
iii. Coordinating enhancement of biosafety awareness, education and capacity building activities.
iv. Coordinate the reviews technical papers, reports and other submissions to the board and other stakeholders.
v. Assisting the Director in developing technical board agenda and technical board paper on biosafety education and awareness matters
vi. Oversee the development of policy briefs and publicity materials
vii. Mentoring and coaching of biosafety staff within the Department
viii. Appraisal of officers that directly and indirectly report to the Deputy Director
ix. Ensuring the setting, implementation and monitoring of Performance contracting within the department
x. Ensuring preparation of budgets proposals, procurement and work plans for the department

Compliance and Enforcement

i. Overseeing preparation of schedules for monitoring of approved GMO research projects, post release monitoring of GMOs released into the environment.
ii. Ensuring market surveillance activities are undertaken.
iii. Coordinate the reviews technical papers, reports and other submissions to the board and other stakeholders.
iv. Approving GMO-Free certificates for non-GMO export commodities
v. Assisting the Director in developing technical board agenda and technical board paper in compliance and enforcement activities
vi. Overseeing the development of systems and controls for facilitating trade through digitization of processes, timely consignment clearance and issuance of permits and certificates.
vii. Coordinating and reviewing GMO market surveillance and inspection and monitoring schedules
viii. Ensuring that inspection and monitoring reports of approved GMO projects and containment facilities
ix. Mentoring and coaching of biosafety staff within the Department
x. Appraisal of officers that directly and indirectly report to the Deputy Director
xi. Ensuring the setting, implementation and monitoring of Performance contracting within the department
xii. Ensuring preparation of budgets proposals, procurement and work plans for the department

Certification and Laboratory Services

i. Assisting the Director in developing technical board agenda and technical board paper in the area Certification and Laboratory Services.
ii. Overseeing the development of guidelines and checklists for inspection, classification and certification of GMO containment facilities.
iii. Ensuring GMO sampling, detection and analysis protocols are developed for timely analysis of samples as well as reviewing the GMO analysis reports.
iv. Overseeing the development of certification criteria for biosafety professionals and competencies on biosafety.
v. Coordinating the establishment of new Institutional Biosafety Committees (IBCs) and registered IBCs seeking renewal
vi. Oversee the preparation of technical papers, reports and other submissions to the board and other stakeholders in areas of certification and laboratory services.
vii. Mentoring and coaching of biosafety staff within the Department
viii. Appraisal of officers that directly and indirectly report to the Deputy Director
ix. Ensuring the setting, implementation and monitoring of Performance contracting within the department
x. Ensuring preparation of budgets proposals, procurement and work plans for the department

(b) Person Specification

i. At least ten (10) years’ experience, three (3) of which must be in a Senior Management level in the public or private sector
ii. Bachelor’s degree in Biotechnology/Biochemistry/Molecular Biology / Environmental Science/Agricultural Sciences/Microbiology or relevant fields from a recognized Institution.
iii. Master’s Degree in Biotechnology/Biochemistry/Molecular Biology / Environmental Science/Agricultural Sciences/Microbiology or relevant fields from a recognized Institution from a recognized Institution.
iv. Authorship in five (5) publications on Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Molecular biology, Agricultural Sciences and related subjects will be an added advantage.
v. Biosafety related short courses
vi. Management Course lasting not less than four weeks from a recognized institution
vii. Member of a professional Body in good standing where applicable
viii. Demonstration of work performance
ix. Proficiency in Computer applications
x. Relevant skills and competencies
xi. Meets requirement of Chapter Six of the Constitution.

(c)Key Competencies and Skills

viii. Strategic leadership skills
ix. Excellent Interpersonal skills
x. Analytical skills
xi. Leadership skills
xii. Results orientated
xiii. Proficiency in Computer Applications
xiv. High level of Integrity

How to Apply

If you believe you meet the criteria for the positions above, please submit your application in Hard OR Soft Copy enclosing copies of your academic and professional certificates, testimonials and a detailed Curriculum Vitae, email and
telephone contacts of three (3) referees in sealed envelope clearly marked with job title to the address below OR scanned copies of all your certificates and send to [email protected] on or before 13th April, 2021 at 5.00 p.m.

Chief Executive Officer
National Biosafety Authority
Nacosti Building, Loresho, – Off Waiyaki way
P.O Box 28251 – 00100 – NAIROBI
Email: [email protected]

Only shortlisted candidates will be contacted and they MUST bring with them current clearance certificates during interviews from the following bodies: –
(i) Kenya Revenue Authority (KRA)
(ii) Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission (EACC)
(iii) Higher Education Loans Board (HELB)
(iv) Directorate of Criminal Investigations (DCI) and
(v) Credit Reference Bureau (CRB)

NBA is an equal opportunity employer women and persons with disability are encouraged to apply


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Biosafety is a major concern in every biomedical and medical setting across the world. The need of instituting biosafety and biosecurity norms/measures is increasing due to the possible dual use of microbial pathogens and increasing awareness. Laboratory associated infections (LAI) have caused diseases and fatal outcome to laboratory workers due to absence or failure of any one of the four basic controls (Engineering, Personal Protective Equipment, Standard Operating Procedure and Administrative Controls) of biosafety 1 ,2 ,3 . In India, apex bodies like Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), and Department of Science and Technology (DST) are playing important role in biomedical research and public health. These agencies have played a leading role in evolving codes of conduct, ethics and biosafety practices.

Under the Indian Environment (Protection) Act of 1986, the Government has the power to take all the safety measures as it deems necessary for the purpose of protecting and improving the quality of the environment and preventing, controlling and abating damage to the environment, including laying down procedures and safeguards for handling hazardous substances, and carrying out and sponsoring investigations and research relating to problems of environmental pollution 4 . The Government enacted in 1986 rules for the manufacture, use, import, export and storage of hazardous microorganisms, genetically engineered organisms or cells. Under these rules, competent authorities have been identified to ensure implementation of the provisions of the Act and to provide guidelines on ethical and social responsibilities of scientists, institutions, industries, who conduct research, and of those who conduct, fund, administer and regulate work in the area of biological sciences 5 . Under this some of very important bodies such as Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RDAC), Institute Biosafety Committee (IBSC), Review Committee on Genetic Manipulation (RCGM), Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC), under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Wildlife have been constituted, and some important guidelines such as Safety guidelines, by the Department of Biotechnology (1990) 6 ,7 , the Drug Policy of 2002 8 , and National Seeds Policy, 2002 9 have been formulated which ensure that all biomedical research and genetically engineered crops/varieties are tested for environment safety and bio-safety before their commercial release. India has been exercising control over the export of Special Chemicals, Organisms, Materials, Equipment and Technologies (SCOMET), which also includes microorganisms/toxins, including bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, plant pathogens and genetically modified organisms. Conditions have been specified for export of SCOMET items, including requirement of a license 10 . In 2002, the DBT has developed Ethical Policies on the Human Genome, Genetic Research and Services 11 . The Indian Council of Medical Research under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, has developed code of conduct for scientists engaged in biomedical research. The Ethical Guidelines developed in 2000 for the biomedical researchers are consistent with the Declaration of Helsinki, adopted by the World Medical Assembly in 1964, and amended in October 2006 based on principles of autonomy, privacy, justice and equity 12 .

ICMR laboratories have a major role in supporting public health and hospital care settings in India by establishing better diagnostic facilities for detection of emerging diseases. ICMR has a mandate to focus on early detection and research on emerging and re-emerging and newly emerging highly pathogenic infectious diseases. Its regional laboratories are also involved in combating endemic diseases, outbreak situations, and national emergencies of many highly infectious and zoonotic diseases of public health importance.

The Department of Health Research (DHR) has launched a programme of establishing a network of 160 virology laboratories throughout the country in 12 th Five Year Plan. ICMR network and the institutes supported by the DHR have already established sixteen BSL-2/BSL-3 laboratories to deal with many pathogenic agents of public health importance. To achieve this goal, ICMR and a number of other leading institutes are in the process of establishing several biosafety level-3 (BSL-3) laboratories at strategic locations as per XII Plan document (2012-2017), DHR, Government of India 1 . In the upcoming laboratories, trained scientific, technical and engineering staff with proper knowledge of biosafety principles and practices will be required in large numbers.

This article summarizes the core concept for the establishment of a BSL-3 laboartory, in various phases up to validation and functionality of the facility. Such facilities will not only lead to a reduction in the occupational exposures to pathogenic material but will also ensure safe environment by facilitating early detection of high risk groups of emerging infectious diseases.

NIAID Biodefense Research Plan

Through a process of extensive expert consultation, NIAID has developed a strategic plan for biodefense and emerging infectious diseases research. Key elements of the plan include the following:

  • Support medical research on microbes and the human immune response to them
  • Apply such research to the discovery and development of vaccines, drugs, and diagnostic tests designed to protect the general population
  • Ensure that the United States has sufficient research facilities to carry out these activities
  • NIAID strategic plan for biodefense, detailed research agendas, and progress reports


This project is supported by the joint project Investigating the Biosafety and Risk Assessment Needs of Synthetic Biology in Austria (Europe) and China, funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China grant no. 30811130544 and by Austrian Science Fund grant no. I215-B17. In addition, MS acknowledges the financial support of the European Science Foundation's EuroSYNBIO program's SYNMOD: Synthetic Biology to Obtain Novel Antibiotics and Optimized Production Systems project, through grant no. I490-B12, and of the European Commission's FP7 (the Seventh Framework Programme for Research) program's ST-FLOW: Standarization and Orthogonalization of the Gene Expression Flow for Robust Engineering of NTN (New-to-Nature) Biological Properties project, though grant no. 289326. The work for this article and its preparation were conducted in late 2011 and early 2012, prior to the 2012 International Genetically Engineered Machines (iGEM) conference.

"We ensure that our laboratory staff can go home in the evening in the same healthy condition as they arrived that morning."

Dr. Timo Kehl, Head of Biological Safety at the DKFZ
© DKFZ/Jutta Jung

Dr. Timo Kehl is Head of Biological Safety at the DKFZ. In this interview, he explains why his area of responsibility has a central role for a research institution like the DKFZ.

You are heading the Biosafety unit at DKFZ. What exactly does your job involve?
At DKFZ, we run about 20,000 square meters of laboratory space of biosafety level 1-3, where the numerous research groups conduct research with a wide variety of biological agents. This includes a broad portfolio of potential hazards for employees and our environment - from possible infections, intoxication, allergic reactions to unintentional release into the environment. In summary, together with my team, I ensure that our laboratory staff can go home in the evening in the same healthy condition as they arrived that morning.
Safety in the laboratory is primarily the responsibility of supervisors and laboratory staff individual employees are responsible for their own safety and that of their colleagues. This is where we come into play: we support our scientists with appropriate expertise in dealing with the numerous biological agents, dedicated instructions for action, hygiene plans, advice on the procurement of laboratory equipment, laboratory renovations, behaviour in the laboratory, and much more. In Germany, handling of biological agents is very strictly regulated according to several laws and ordinances. All activities carried out at DKFZ have to be registered with the governmental authorities, workflows have to be documented in detail and have to pass regular inspections by the regulatory authorities. Within this legal framework, my team and I, as "Biosafety Officers", control and monitor the implementation of the legislation, including the Genetic Engineering Act, the Protection against Infection Act and the Biological Agents Ordinance. All official procedures at our centre are handled by the Biological Safety Unit. We also support the scientific working groups and the DKFZ in advance of and during regular audits conducted by the different regulatory authorities.
Furthermore, in my function as "representative of the operator", I represent the DKFZ management board in all questions and matters concerning biological safety, both internally and externally. This makes me, for example, the direct contact person for the various governmental authorities.

Why is biological safety a central topic in a biomedical research institution?
Biomedical research institutions, such as the DKFZ, work with various genetically modified organisms (GMOs), microorganisms (bacteria and viruses) and medical specimens. The DKFZ uses these biological agents for research into the development of cancer, new therapies and prevention. Depending on the circumstances, this work might involve a certain risk for the scientists themselves, other staff at the centre, or even for the environment. On the one hand, people could become infected with biological agents through accidents and in turn unintentionally infect colleagues or other fellow human beings, thereby spreading pathogens to the outside world. On the other hand, microorganisms could inadvertently enter the environment through the air or wastewater from the laboratory.
The task of the Biosafety Unit is to assess the risks posed by biological agents and, at the same time, to develop and implement measures so that all scientists, employees, the general public and our environment are protected from the possible dangers inherent in research. In such risk assessments, and the derivation of the appropriate measures, we examine, e.g. who could potentially be affected by an infection, by what means and how quickly this could happen, and what is ultimately the probability of an infection if one has come into contact with corresponding substances. In addition to infections, possible allergenic effects also play an important role and, in all cases, of course the consideration of available therapy options.
In Germany, there is a large number of complex laws, guidelines and regulations that research centres must implement. For a centre like DKFZ, it would be very inefficient if each research group had to deal with these issues separately. That is why the DKFZ has had a Biosafety Committee and a dedicated unit dealing with these issues for almost 30 years. The DKFZ is a pioneer and role model for other institutes in terms of organisational structure and scope in this field. Biosafety at the DKFZ has always adapted quickly to the increasing complexity and speed of research. In addition to traditional consulting and auditing, the DKFZ offers scientists and working groups a broad portfolio of services and support to ensure that regulations do not under any circumstances become the bottleneck of research.
Our support includes the management of the central S2/S3 laboratories at DKFZ. These central laboratories provide DKFZ researchers with a modern working environment in which they can carry out high-risk research safely, quickly, in a resource-efficient manner and with minimal organizational and regulatory effort.

The DKFZ laboratories work with biological agents, genetically modified organisms and pathogens that pose different potential hazards to employees. How are the scientists and biological laboratory assistants trained for this?
The safe and optimal operation of a laboratory requires a sense of responsibility and sufficient expertise among its supervisors and individual employees. It is therefore essential that all laboratory-associated employees are regularly kept up to date through safety trainings and continuing education. For this purpose, annual laboratory instructions are held in all departments, during which the specific hazards are discussed in detail. On request, we support, advise and train individual departments in this respect. In cooperation with the Education and Advanced Training department, we offer tailor-made workshops and teaching modules on the subject of biological safety, right from the start of employment or training in order to impart the necessary knowledge in handling biological agents and safe laboratory operation. We have intensive support processes for new research groups and international research groups, usually in the form of personal discussions and group-internal training. [This includes also bilingual working and information documents.] Our aim is to bring all employees in our institute to the same safety standard and to provide the best possible support. Our close management of the central S2/S3 safety laboratories is ultimately because of the complexity of safety regulations and legal requirements. In addition, a large number of information material, instructions, templates and infographics are available to all DKFZ employees in German and English on the Biological Safety intranet pages.

Examples of overall career development goals

Here is a list of 10 sample career development goals to help you create your own:

1. Complete a professional certificate or degree

A great overall career development goal is earning a professional certificate or degree that supports career progression. Continuing education improves your current skills and can help you in the future if you want to apply for a promotion or change careers. There are a variety of programs available in different industries, and many institutions offer evening courses to accommodate work schedules.

Depending on the level of education you are looking to acquire, this can act as both a short-term or long-term goal. You could set a short-term goal of completing a four-hour online class or set a longer-term goal of obtaining a master’s degree.

Some employers offer professional development programs to invest in the growth of their employees. Ask your manager or human resources representative if your company has a professional development program so you can continue to learn industry-related skills.

2. Learn how other departments function

Learning how different departments operate can help you contribute more meaningfully to the company. When you learn how your role affects different departments, you can alter work habits to make another division function smoother. You could make one of your career development goals to schedule a few hours observing each department that works with your team.

3. Ask for feedback

Seeking feedback from your manager and team members is a good way to see how others perceive you. You should strive to be a valuable member of the team, so it is helpful to gain insight from those who observe your work to provide constructive feedback to help identify your strengths and determine what skills you should develop. Consider setting a goal to periodically check in with a few colleagues. When possible, seek feedback from coworkers you have collaborated with from different areas of the business to gain a variety of perspectives.

4. Improve performance metrics

Performance metrics are data collected to measure behavior and activities in relation to overall performance. Increasing your performance metrics at work can prove how efficient you are.

Examples of metrics to track include how you help to decrease the company’s overall costs and how frequently you deliver projects by their deadlines. You can set both short- and long-term goals to work toward. Consider keeping track of your performance metrics to see how you improve over the year.

You can also include positive metrics on your resume, as supportive material to supplement a request for a raise or promotion or highlight them in a job interview.

5. Apply for a promotion

One way to challenge yourself is to apply for a promotion. This can work as a short-term or long-term goal. Start by identifying what the next role comes next in your career progression and assess your qualifications. If you closely meet the requirements and only need to demonstrate additional skills like leadership, this can be a short-term goal. If you find that you need to gain additional skills, education or experience, this can become a long-term goal.

Seeking a position with more responsibility could help you gain new skills and continue to enhance your career. When you are ready for a promotion, make a list of projects you have completed to discuss with your manager and their impact on the business. You could also mention any skills you are excited to learn, such as leading a team.

6. Enhance your networking skills

Improving networking skills increases your chances of improving your business-related knowledge and building a stronger professional network. You can begin networking by talking to new coworkers or speaking with colleagues in other departments. Another way to network is by attending professional events where you meet new people with similar interests. Networking events can focus on learning more about a new aspect of an industry or focus solely on a specific topic or skill.

7. Develop your communication skills

Delivering and receiving clear information increases work efficiency. Consider setting a career goal to improve your written, interpersonal and verbal communication skills. For example, to improve your verbal communication skills, take a public speaking class that helps you feel more comfortable delivering presentations.

Written communication is another important professional development goal to work toward. Before you send an email, proofread it to confirm that it is clear, free of errors and concise. Enable an automatic spell checker on your web browser so each email you send is more likely to be error-free and professional.

8. Work well on a team

Working efficiently on a team shows your supervisor that they can depend on you. If you are currently on a project team, take initiative and organize meetings to discuss your progress. When you attend meetings, make sure to listen to everyone carefully, then offer your opinion. Considering everyone’s ideas can help increase collaboration during a group project. Additionally, you can try to help your coworkers with any challenges or obstacles they might experience.

9. Volunteer to learn new technology

It is important to stay current with your industry’s technology. Learning new software or programs related to your field shows that you are willing to embrace new technology and maximize productivity. You could also learn a new technology that helps your team or supervisor. For example, if your manager needs to correct an error on your company’s website, you could learn the basics of a coding language to find the error and fix it.

10. Create a website

One way to develop professionally is to create a personal website. Personal websites can be used to host your professional portfolio, resume, personal mission statement or blog. When you are applying for jobs, send a link to your website for hiring managers to review additional information about projects you’ve completed and specific achievements. You can also include your contact information on your website to expand your professional network.

Guide to Biosafety Levels

Biosafety Level 1 (BSL-1)

Suitable for well-characterized agents not known to cause disease in healthy humans.

Lab Practices
Standard practices
Open lab tables, benches

Safety Equipment
Lab coats, gloves, eye protection as needed

Facility Construction
Sink required for hand washing
Doors separating lab from facility

Nonpathogenic strains of E. coli
Astarte’s assay kits and mouse cells

Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2)

Suitable for microbes that pose moderate hazards to individuals and the environment. All BSL-1 safety standards apply.

Lab Practices
Restricted access when work in progress

Safety Equipment
Face shields as needed
Biological safety cabinet used when sprays/splashes can cause infection
Autoclave for decontamination

Facility Construction
Self-closing doors
Eyewash station

Staphylococcus aureus
Astarte’s human cells

Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3)

Suitable for indigenous or exotic microbes that can cause serious infection through respiratory transmission. All BSL-2 safety standards apply.

Lab Practices
Medical surveillance available
Proper immunizations

Safety Equipment
Personal protective equipment mandatory
Respirators may be required

Facility Construction
Hands-free sink and eyewash near exit
Exhaust air cannot be recirculated
Sustained directional airflow
Two sets of self-closing and locking doors

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4)

Suitable for exotic and dangerous microbes that have a high risk of aerosol transmission, can be fatal, and may not have treatments or vaccines. All BSL-3 safety standards apply.

Lab Practices
Change clothing before entering
Decontaminate all materials and shower before exiting

Safety Equipment
Class III biological safety cabinet
Full body, air-supplied, positive pressure suit

Facility Construction
A separate building or isolated zone
Dedicated supply and exhaust air
Vacuum lines and decontamination systems

Ebola, Marburg and smallpox viruses

Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Author: Anne Lodge, Ph.D.

Dr. Lodge is the Chief Science and Innovation Officer at Cellero. She has a strong background in cell-based therapeutics and immunology, including a Ph.D. in Cell and Molecular Biology from the University of Vermont and a postdoctoral fellowship with the Multiple Sclerosis Society studying the role of T cells in the disease process. Learn more about Dr. Lodge.

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Watch the video: Biosafety Level 3 Lab Exit (July 2022).


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