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Recommendation of a comprehensive book on the history of medicine

Recommendation of a comprehensive book on the history of medicine



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I was wondering if somebody could recommend a book on the history of medicine, be it comprehensive or an introduction to the history of medicine. I know there are a lot of medical books that cover this subject, but given that I have a limited amount of time for reading I was wondering which book would make the best use of my time.


While it's not meant to be a history of all of medicine, I thought the The Emperor of All Maladies touched on a good deal of the history as the author took us through how cancers were diagnosed and treated since long ago.

Great book, that was.


I enjoyed "Doctors: the biography of Medicine" by Sherwin Nuland

It is not comprehensive, but covers the major eras of medicine.

Im sure there are many others.


50 Books to Read if You Love Medicine

I wasn&rsquot always a writer. As a preteen, I wanted to be a pediatric oncologist, a dream that continues today. My love of medicine and people propelled me toward psychology, then public health, where I could combine everything into fields like psychosocial oncology and perinatal psychology. My not-so-secret desire to be a doctor, though, has never really gone away. At this point, I have accepted that my graduate school loans are sizable enough, and my life no longer has room for the possibility of ever going to medical school &ndash and besides, when I did take some prerequisites, although I love reading medical textbooks, my brain just does not like rote memorization&hellipwhich is a problem in the biological sciences. But I still love reading about medicine, doctoring, and anything in the medical field in medical books.

Here, in no particular order, are 50 must-read and best medical books. I like to think that if you devour reruns of ER and House, that you&rsquoll like these, too. They&rsquore mostly books about medicine that are nonfiction, with fiction marked with a (*) and forthcoming books marked (**).

    When Breath Becomes Airby Paul Kalanithi.One of my favorites. &ldquoAt the age of thirty-six, on the verge of completing a decade&rsquos worth of training as a neurosurgeon, Paul Kalanithi was diagnosed with stage IV lung cancer. One day he was a doctor treating the dying, and the next he was a patient struggling to live. And just like that, the future he and his wife had imagined evaporated.&rdquo

  1. The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down by Anne Fadiman. &ldquoThe Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down explores the clash between a small county hospital in California and a refugee family from Laos over the care of Lia Lee, a Hmong child diagnosed with severe epilepsy. Lia&rsquos parents and her doctors both wanted what was best for Lia, but the lack of understanding between them led to tragedy.&rdquo
  2. Wit* by Margaret Edson. &ldquoMargaret Edson&rsquos powerfully imagined Pulitzer Prize&ndashwinning play examines what makes life worth living through her exploration of one of existence&rsquos unifying experiences―mortality―while she also probes the vital importance of human relationships. What we as her audience take away from this remarkable drama is a keener sense that, while death is real and unavoidable, our lives are ours to cherish or throw away―a lesson that can be both uplifting and redemptive.&rdquo
  3. Letters to a Young Doctor by Richard Selzer. &ldquoHighly candid, insightful, and unexpectedly humorous essays on both the brutality and the beauty of the profession in which saving and losing lives is all in a day&rsquos work. A timeless collection by the &ldquobest of the writing surgeons&rdquo (Chicago Tribune).&rdquo
  4. The Lives of a Cell: Notes of a Biology Watcher by Lewis Thomas. &ldquoElegant, suggestive, and clarifying, Lewis Thomas&rsquos profoundly humane vision explores the world around us and examines the complex interdependence of all things. Extending beyond the usual limitations of biological science and into a vast and wondrous world of hidden relationships, this provocative book explores in personal, poetic essays to topics such as computers, germs, language, music, death, insects, and medicine.&rdquo
  1. The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat by Oliver Sacks. A classic in the field of neurology. If you read one book by Sacks, make it this one.
  2. The Illness Narratives: Suffering, Healing, and the Human Condition by Arthur Kleinman. &ldquoBased on twenty years of clinical experience studying and treating chronic illness, a Harvard psychiatrist and anthropologist argues that diagnosing illness is an art tragically neglected by modern medical training, and presents a compelling case for bridging the gap between patient and doctor.&rdquo
  3. The Human Side of Cancer: Living With Hope, Coping With Uncertainty by Jimmie Holland. This book was my bible when I worked in psycho-oncology. Dr. Holland is the founder of the field, and she&rsquos just brilliant.
  4. When the Air Hits Your Brain: Tales from Neurosurgery by Frank Vertosick, Jr. &ldquoWith poignant insight and humor, Frank Vertosick Jr., MD, describes some of the greatest challenges of his career, including a six-week-old infant with a tumor in her brain, a young man struck down in his prime by paraplegia, and a minister with a .22-caliber bullet lodged in his skull. Told through intimate portraits of Vertosick&rsquos patients and unsparing yet fascinatingly detailed descriptions of surgical procedures, When the Air Hits Your Brain―the culmination of decades spent struggling to learn an unforgiving craft―illuminates both the mysteries of the mind and the realities of the operating room.&rdquo
  5. Dying Well: Peace and Possibilities at the End of Life by Ira Byock. &ldquoThrough the true stories of patients, he shows us that a lot of important emotional work can be accomplished in the final months, weeks, and even days of life. It is a companion for families, showing them how to deal with doctors, how to talk to loved ones&mdashand how to make the end of life as meaningful and enriching as the beginning.&rdquo
  6. A Stitch of Time: The Year a Brain Injury Changed My Language and Life by Lauren Marks. &ldquoLauren Marks was twenty-seven, touring a show in Scotland with her friends, when an aneurysm ruptured in her brain and left her fighting for her life. She woke up in a hospital soon after with serious deficiencies to her reading, speaking, and writing abilities, and an unfamiliar diagnosis: aphasia. This would be shocking news for anyone, but Lauren was a voracious reader, an actress, director, and dramaturg, and at the time of the event, pursuing her PhD. At any other period of her life, this diagnosis would have been a devastating blow. But she woke up&hellipdifferent.&rdquo
  7. The Gene: An Intimate History by Siddhartha Mukherjee. &ldquo&hellipIn this biography Mukherjee brings to life the quest to understand human heredity and its surprising influence on our lives, personalities, identities, fates, and choices.&rdquo
  8. How We Do Harm: A Doctor Breaks Ranks About Being Sick in America by Otis Webb Brawley. &ldquo&hellipexposes the underbelly of healthcare today―the overtreatment of the rich, the under treatment of the poor, the financial conflicts of interest that determine the care that physicians provide, insurance companies that don&rsquot demand the best (or even the least expensive) care, and pharmaceutical companies concerned with selling drugs, regardless of whether they improve health or do harm.&rdquo
  9. Blue Collar, Blue Scrubs: The Making of a Surgeon by Michael Collins. &ldquo&helliptaking readers from his days as a construction worker to his entry into medical school, expertly infusing his journey to become a doctor with humanity, compassion, and humor. From the first time he delivers a baby to being surrounded by death and pain on a daily basis, Collins compellingly writes about how medicine makes him confront, in a very deep and personal way, the nature of God and suffering―and how delicate life can be.&rdquo
  10. I Knew A Woman: Four Women Patients and Their Female Caregiver by Cortney Davis. &ldquoA poet and nurse-practitioner with twenty five years&rsquo experience, Davis reveals the beauty of the body&rsquos workings by unfolding the lives of four patients who struggle with its natural cycles and unexpected surprises: pregnancy and childbirth, illness and recovery, sexual dysfunction and sexual joy. An abundance of solid medical information imbues every graceful line.&rdquo
  11. Mountains Beyond Mountains by Tracey Kidder. &ldquoIn medical school, Paul Farmer found his life&rsquos calling: to cure infectious diseases and to bring the lifesaving tools of modern medicine to those who need them most. Kidder&rsquos magnificent account takes us from Harvard to Haiti, Peru, Cuba, and Russia as Farmer changes minds and practices through his dedication to the philosophy that &ldquothe only real nation is humanity.&rdquo At the heart of this book is the example of a life based on hope and on an understanding of the truth of the Haitian proverb &ldquoBeyond mountains there are mountains&rdquo&ndashas you solve one problem, another problem presents itself, and so you go on and try to solve that one too.&rdquo
  12. What Doctors Feel: How Emotions Affect the Practice of Medicine by Danielle Ofri. &ldquoHow do the stresses of medical life&mdashfrom paperwork to grueling hours to lawsuits to facing death&mdashaffect the medical care that doctors can offer their patients? Digging deep into the lives of doctors, Ofri examines the daunting range of emotions&mdashshame, anger, empathy, frustration, hope, pride, occasionally despair, and sometimes even love&mdashthat permeate the contemporary doctor-patient connection.&rdquo
  13. God&rsquos Hotel: A Doctor, a Hospital, and a Pilgrimage to the Heart of Medicine by Victoria Sweet. &ldquoSan Francisco&rsquos Laguna Honda Hospital is the last almshouse in the country, a descendant of the Hôtel-Dieu (God&rsquos hotel) that cared for the sick in the Middle Ages. Ballet dancers and rock musicians, professors and thieves&mdash&ldquoanyone who had fallen, or, often, leapt, onto hard times&rdquo and needed extended medical care&mdashended up here. So did Victoria Sweet, who came for two months and stayed for twenty years.&rdquo
  14. This Won&rsquot Hurt a Bit (And Other White Lies): My Education in Medicine and Motherhood by Michelle Au. &ldquoIt&rsquos a no-holds-barred account of what a modern medical education feels like, from the grim to the ridiculous, from the heartwarming to the obscene. Unlike most medical memoirs, however, this one details the author&rsquos struggles to maintain a life outside of the hospital, in the small amount of free time she had to live it. And, after she and her husband have a baby early in both their medical residencies, Au explores the demands of being a parent with those of a physician, two all-consuming jobs in which the lives of others are very literally in her hands.&rdquo
  15. Black Man in a White Coat: A Doctor&rsquos Reflections on Race and Medicine by Damon Tweedy. &ldquo&hellipexamines the complex ways in which both black doctors and patients must navigate the difficult and often contradictory terrain of race and medicine. As Tweedy transforms from student to practicing physician, he discovers how often race influences his encounters with patients. Through their stories, he illustrates the complex social, cultural, and economic factors at the root of many health problems in the black community. These issues take on greater meaning when Tweedy is himself diagnosed with a chronic disease far more common among black people. In this powerful, moving, and deeply empathic book, Tweedy explores the challenges confronting black doctors, and the disproportionate health burdens faced by black patients, ultimately seeking a way forward to better treatment and more compassionate care.&rdquo
  16. Five Days at Memorial: Life and Death in a Storm-Ravaged Hospital by Sheri Fink. &ldquoAfter Katrina struck and the floodwaters rose, the power failed, and the heat climbed, exhausted caregivers chose to designate certain patients last for rescue. Months later, several of those caregivers faced criminal allegations that they deliberately injected numerous patients with drugs to hasten their deaths. Five Days at Memorial, the culmination of six years of reporting, unspools the mystery of what happened in those days, bringing the reader into a hospital fighting for its life and into a conversation about the most terrifying form of health care rationing.&rdquo
  17. Critical Care: A New Nurse Faces Death, Life, and Everything in Between by Theresa Brown. &ldquo&hellipthe powerful and absorbing memoir of Theresa Brown&mdasha regular contributor to the New York Times blog &ldquoWell&rdquo&mdashabout her experiences during the first year on the job as an oncology nurse in the process, Brown sheds brilliant light on issues of mortality and meaning in our lives.&rdquo
  18. The Cancer Journals by Audre Lorde. &ldquoLiterary Nonfiction. Memoir. African American Studies. LGBT Studies. Moving between journal entry, memoir, and exposition, Audre Lorde fuses the personal and political as she reflects on her experience coping with breast cancer and a radical mastectomy.&rdquo

What do you think are the best medical books? Want to learn even more about the subject? Check out &ldquo100 Must-Read Books About The History of Medicine.&rdquo


1. Bad Science by Ben Goldacre

Undoubtedly a must-read if you’re interested in research (which you should be!). This gem combines humour with facts, to shed light on what goes on behind every discovery, as well as what happens when things are going slow in the lab.

In this book by the British physician and researcher Ben Goldacre, basic principles of the scientific method in research are explained in a satirical, eye-opening way. He discusses the malpractice used by some researchers, universities and scientific journals, and the problems caused by – well, as he puts it, bad science. This ranges from calling out the dodgy claims made by scaremongering journalists going after an easy news story, to researchers themselves hiding important results simply because they wouldn’t give them a publication. This book is especially recommended to give you an idea on the realities of research, while still being light-hearted and fun to read. Ideal for a summer holiday reading list!


Book #2: The Emperor of All Maladies by Siddhartha Mukherjee, MD, PhD

When a book wins a Pulitzer Prize, you know it’s a good read. That’s definitely the case for The Emperor of All Maladiesby Siddhartha Mukherjee, which provides a “biography” of cancer. Mukherjee traces the history of the disease all the way from its appearance thousands of years ago to today, and in doing so, helps readers better understand cancer as a disease. He also spends time looking at modern cancer treatment and talking about the future of cancer research, which will bring you up to speed on critical advancements in your future field.

No matter what type of medicine you want to practice, cancer is the specter that haunts them all. Having a better understanding of the history and future of the disease will not only better prepare you to face it in your own medical career, but it will help you understand how to best support your patients who face such a scary diagnosis. Mukherjee’s sharp writing style makes this book a page turner that you don’t want to miss! (And once you’re done, you can watch the documentary, which was directed by none other than Ken Burns.)


The Ten Best Science Books of 2019

Science books offer an opportunity to step back from the constant stream of dramatic new discoveries to consider the broader implications of ongoing research. The books on this list attempt to piece together the long story of how humans came to be the species we are today, examine how we have change the world around us, and scrutinize the biases and shortcomings of our knowledge. These titles can help illuminate the findings of science to any casual reader, from the unexpected roles of insects, to the miraculous workings of our immune systems, to the ecological challenges we face in the future.

Origins: How Earth's History Shaped Human History

In Origins, astrobiologist Lewis Dartnell outlines the many profound ways that the geology of our planet has shaped the development of humans and human societies. In the East African Rift Valley, for example, a chasm in the Earth’s crust created highly variable climates that human ancestors were forced to adapt to, Dartnell argues, by relying more heavily on tools and social cooperation. Retreating ice caps brought the warm and wet conditions of the Holocene, allowing for the rise and spread of agriculture. Following the dawn of history, the forces of the atmosphere and ocean continued to influence the spread of human civilizations, and such natural forces play a major role in the future of our species as well.

Buzz, Sting, Bite: Why We Need Insects

Some bugs spread disease, others bite or sting, and many are just plain annoying. But these animals aren’t just creepy-crawlies: Insects are important pollinators, a food source for many bigger species, critical for decomposition, and they even keep us safe from harmful organisms. In Buzz, Sting, Bite, author and professor of conservation biology at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson addresses the medley of threats that insects face, including climate change, habitat loss, pesticides, light pollution and more. Losing insects could trigger a detrimental cascade of effects on ecosystems, so to reverse your aversion to arthropods Sverdrup-Thygeson takes readers into the wonderful world of bugs. Take, for example, the chocolate midge. It’s the only pollinator that services cocoa plants, and no cocoa means no chocolate. Drisophila melanogaster, the common fruit fly, is critical to basic medical research. And without a tiny wasp that makes galls on oak trees, America’s founders wouldn’t have had ink for the Declaration of Independence.

Invisible Women: Data Bias in a World Designed for Men

So much of our world—from medicine to technology—is designed with men in mind, and journalist and author Caroline Criado-Pérez has the data to prove it. In Invisible Women, the 2019 winner of the Royal Society’s Science Book Prize, Criado-Pérez lays out a parade of examples, statistics, studies and data that shows so much of our world was designed with women as an afterthought. Smartphones are made to fit the average man’s hand, voice recognition is trained on male voices, and heart failure trials are made up of majority male sample groups. This bias has created a world of, at best, inconvenience for women—they spend 2.3 times longer in bathrooms designed for male bodies—and, at worst, threats to physical health—women are 50 percent more likely to be misdiagnosed with a heart attack. Criado-Pérez cites hundreds of studies that show how society and science have systemically ignored half of the world population’s needs.

The Body: A Guide for Occupants

Sixteen years after the publication of Bill Bryson’s acclaimed popular science book A Short History of Nearly Everything, the witty and accessible author has turned his attention toward the workings of the human body. Chapters focus on different parts of human anatomy, from our skin and our brains to the circulatory system, skeleton and tens of thousands of microbes hitching a ride in and on us. Bryson examines the wonders of human biology, the history of medicine and surgery, and the sometimes frightening world of diseases. Full of profound insights and amusing anecdotes, The Body is a perfect book for anyone who wants to learn a little more about the fine-tuned biological machine that is the human form.

End of the Megafauna: The Fate of the World's Hugest, Fiercest, and Strangest Animals

Thousands of years ago, giants roamed earth. Alongside familiar woolly mammoths and saber-toothed cats, oversized bears, wolves and beavers spread across North America. Ground sloths over 12 feet tall on their hind legs lumbered across South America, 10-foot-tall flightless birds thrived in Madagascar, and deer measuring 7 feet tall at the shoulder—with antlers as wide as 12 feet from tip to tip—ranged from Ireland to China. In End of the Megafauna, mammologist and curator at the American Museum of Natural History Ross MacPhee investigates the extinction of these behemoths, complete with beautiful color illustrations from zoology and paleontology artist Peter Schouten. The loss of the world’s megafauna due to human hunting, dramatic climate change at the end of the last glacial maximum, or some combination of factors provides a cautionary tale for the future of life on earth.

The First Cell: And the Human Costs of Pursuing Cancer to the Last

The way doctors treat cancer—and researchers look for new ways to fight the disease—is to destroy every last malignant cell. Current techniques, such as chemotherapy, are frequently physiologically damaging and extremely expensive. Oftentimes taking potent drugs and attending treatment buys a patient only a few more months to live, leaving them exhausted and weakened. Cancer treatment has evolved, but patients with some types of cancer still die at virtually the same rate as patients 50 years ago.

Author Azra Raza, a Columbia University professor of medicine and practicing oncologist, lays out a radical plan to shift the focus of cancer care from fighting the disease in its final stages to finding the very first cells. In The First Cell, Raza relies on her experience studying cancer in a lab, treating terminally ill patients and witnessing her husband’s battle with leukemia to outline exactly how science and society has been mistreating cancer—and how she envisions a revolutionary rethinking of the path forward.

Eating the Sun: Small Musings on a Vast Universe

Scientific language can be largely restrictive, laced with jargon and dense technical writing. But sometimes science is quite poetic. Consider the term eigengrau, used by scientists to describe the grayish hues our eyes see when its dark or chronoception, a word to describe our perception of time. In Eating the Sun, author Ella Frances Sanders takes readers on a breezy journey of discovery with a collection of short essays on fascinating topics from orbital mechanics to the microbiome. The title of the book refers to photosynthesis, “[the] digestible sun fuel that we are consuming.” Sanders introduces the reader to the whimsical—but science backed—idea of plant “memory” and “learning,” alongside statistics about the rate of plant extinction. She leaves readers armed with hard data, like how the average 80-year-old has taken 700 million breaths in their life, as well as important science facts, like how global warming affects Earth’s rotation. Sanders’ own illustrations are paired with each essay on science and astronomy, perfect for the casual and the curious reader.

The End of Ice: Bearing Witness and Finding Meaning in the Path of Climate Disruption

For the residents of Utqiagvik, Alaska, the northernmost city of the United States, climate change presents daily challenges. Thinning ice sheets and rising seas threaten Inupiat communities’ way of life as previously sturdy land routes melt away and infrastructure built on permafrost slips into the ocean. Animals critical to subsistence hunting migrate to new regions, and rougher seas make navigation along the coasts more perilous than ever. Some estimates suggest the Arctic could have ice-free summers by mid-century, a possibility that would have devastating effects for communities across the northern reaches of our planet. In The End of Ice, journalist and mountaineer Dahr Jamail travels to some of the northernmost inhabited areas in the world to chronicle the encroaching and devastating effects of climate change.

Superior: The Return of Race Science

In Superior, science journalist Angela Saini presents a meticulously researched account of the racist biases in scientific studies and the damage and violence that such studies can cause. From archaeology and anthropology to biology and genetics, researchers around the world continue to group humans according to race and seek out ostensible intrinsic traits that separate various groups, often arriving at inaccurate and dangerous conclusions. For example, scientists have long searched for a biological cause of high rates of hypertension, or high blood pressure, in African Americans. But Saini provides evidence that environmental factors such as discrimination and poverty can lead to hypertension, and she points out that rural Africans actually have lower instances of high blood pressure. The temptation for scientists to ignore complex social structures in favor of singular, biological explanations of perceived differences among humans can fuel extremist beliefs with devastating outcomes—something Superior reminds us to be wary of when reading about “objective” scientific research.

The Reality Bubble: Blind Spots, Hidden Truths, and the Dangerous Illusions that Shape Our World

There is more to the universe than meets the eye. What we can see influences and even limits our perception of the world around us. Other animals can see infrared or ultraviolet light, for example, and experience an existence entirely different from our own. To see what is inside our bodies, we need X-rays. We use microscopes to see tiny things and telescopes to see distant but massive things. All of these innovations give us the opportunity to literally see beyond the capability of the naked eye.

In The Reality Bubble, science journalist Ziya Tong explains in three parts how humans only experience a small sliver of reality. Tong starts with the literal limitations of sight and the tools we use to see the unseeable. She then shifts to illuminate the many processes that power our existence but remain out of sight and out of mind, such as where our food comes from, how we use energy, and where our waste ends up. Tong puts a spotlight on our tendency to ignore aspects of our own survival, concluding with the way civilization has crafted its own false narrative of history—and how those falsehoods can harm us. By redoubling our efforts to accurately perceive the world around us, Tong argues, we may be able to craft a better future for humanity.

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About Jay Bennett

Jay Bennett is an associate web editor for Smithsonian.com. He previously worked as a web editor for Popular Mechanics.

About Rachael Lallensack

Rachael Lallensack is the assistant web editor for science and innovation at Smithsonian.


The Ten Best Science Books of 2018

We live in exciting—and slightly alarming—times. In just the past year, new discoveries about the origins of our species have been published, geneticists continue to unlock the workings of our constituent DNA, dramatic finds upended our understanding of life in the deep past, and spacecraft have flown to many unexplored corners of the solar system. It can be dizzying to try to keep track of it all, especially as scientists continue to warn of impending climate calamity and rogue actors skirt regulation to perform genetic edits on humans. Fortunately, 2018 was also a year full of great science books, the perfect way to take a step back and consider the implications of new discoveries and experiments. Whether you want to look inward at the science of human heredity, or outward to Pluto and beyond, the best science books of the year will teach you something that humanity itself is only just starting to learn.

Chasing New Horizons: Inside the Epic First Mission to Pluto

On the first day of 2019, NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft will cruise past Ultima Thule, an icy space rock orbiting in the outer reaches of the solar system. The flyby will mark the most distant planetary encounter in human history, and the images and science data beamed back to Earth are expected to transform our understanding of the Kuiper Belt, a largely unexplored realm beyond Neptune. But almost four years before the Ultima Thule encounter, New Horizons completed its primary mission: the first-ever rendezvous with Pluto. When the spacecraft launched in 2006, Pluto was still considered a planet, and the New Horizons flyby completed the initial reconnaissance of the solar system. In Chasing New Horizons, principle investigator Alan Stern shares with planetary scientist David Grinspoon the political battles and engineering breakthroughs that brought humanity to Pluto and beyond.

The Poison Squad: One Chemist's Single-Minded Crusade for Food Safety at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

As the 19th century drew to a close, the industrial packaging and distribution of food and drink had become a deadly enterprise. Milk mixed with embalming fluids and rotting meat preserved with cleaning products are only a couple of the nightmares that consumers could face when purchasing foodstuffs in major United States cities. In 1883, Purdue chemistry professor Harvey Washington Wiley was named chief chemist of the Agriculture Department, and he launched a crusade to rid the U.S. of tainted consumables. Pulitzer Prize winning journalist and author Deborah Blum retells the story of Wiley’s campaign investigating food and drink fraud cases, campaigning tirelessly for consumer protections alongside characters such as writer Upton Sinclair, and assembling a “poison squad” of young volunteers to test the various food preservatives used at the time—all of which culminates in the landmark Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906.

The Rise and Fall of the Dinosaurs: A New History of a Lost World

Illuminated with dozens of illustrations and photos, The Rise and Fall of Dinosaurs chronicles the reign of the terrible lizards and their sudden disappearance from Earth 66 million years ago. In this comprehensive look at the newest discoveries and insights into the lives of the dinosaurs, American paleontologist Steve Brusatte details the evolution of these creatures from small cave-dwellers to the Goliaths of the prehistoric forests and plains. From dinosaurs’ origins in the beginning of the Triassic, through their domination of the planet during the Jurassic, and concluding with the asteroid strike at the end of the Cretaceous that coincided with a worldwide extinction event, The Rise and Fall of Dinosaurs contains new details about the fascinating creatures that thrived long before the rise of homo sapiens.

Lost in Math: How Beauty Leads Physics Astray

Mathematics, and its direct application in theoretical physics, is often beautiful, elegant and profound to the point that the distinction between math and philosophy blurs. Physicists have long held fast to the notion that explanations of the natural world can be expressed in refined equations and universal laws, and that theories that are more complex or contradictory are less likely to be correct than simple, elegant solutions: E = mc 2 . But author and theoretical physicist Sabine Hossenfelder, who studies the relationships (or lack thereof) of quantum mechanics and gravity, argues in her book Lost in Math that this quest for mathematical aestheticism has become a dogmatic exercise in delusion. Hossenfelder strips away the math to wrestle with the possibility that the cosmos is not a harmonious, balanced structure, waiting to be described by the next elegant epiphany, but rather a realm of enigmatic chaos that, if we are to understand with greater clarity, must be approached with unbiased scientific observation and measurement to reveal what is, and not what ought to be.

The Dinosaur Artist: Obsession, Betrayal, and the Quest for Earth's Ultimate Trophy

Part paleontology lesson and part international crime mystery, The Dinosaur Artist is the story of an overzealous fossil collector who found himself on the wrong side of the law. The ownership of dinosaur fossils is a complicated matter—many countries claim all fossils within their borders as the scientific property of the state, but in the U.S., if a fossil is found on your property, it belongs to you. Landowners in the west will even lease out their land for fossil hunters to search, and a lively dinosaur market for private collectors and museums alike has emerged as a result. Author and contributor to The New Yorker, Paige Williams, tells the story of native Floridian Eric Prokopi, who becomes an expert at locating, assembling and selling dinosaur fossils. But when one of his specimens, a nearly complete Tyrannosaurus bataar skeleton, sells at a New York auction for upwards of a million dollars, questions quickly emerge about where the exquisite fossil came from—and paleontologists on the other side of the world in Mongolia have an idea.

First in Fly: Drosophila Research and Biological Discovery

The prime candidate for physiological studies is generally the lab mouse, but an even less likely creature has contributed significantly to our understanding of biology: the common fruit fly. Valued in research for its short life cycle and ability to reproduce in large numbers, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is in many ways the perfect organism to study genetics, cellular biology, immunology and behavior. Like humans, flies can learn and retain information, they start to degrade with age, and they have immune systems to battle disease and infections. Harvard lecturer on genetics Stephanie Elizabeth Mohr chronicles how the fruit fly has been a cornerstone of scientific research for over a century. From cancer and diabetes studies, to analyses of human genome data, the fruit fly is an invaluable organism in laboratories around the world.

She Has Her Mother's Laugh: The Powers, Perversions, and Potential of Heredity

In his new book, science journalist Carl Zimmer explores the many factors, from genetics to microbes to environment, that we inherit from our ancestors to make us who we are. As the study of genes becomes more accessible and comprehensive, scientists have come to realize that our genomes are not just a simple matter of inheriting material from mom and dad, but rather our DNA is patched together from numerous sources tracing back along divergent ancestral lines. The genetic result is often as intricate and multifaceted as an individual’s personality, and DNA is only the groundwork of our hereditary traits. As cells multiply to constitute our bodies and bacteria cultivates in our guts, we take more than just strands of DNA from those who came before us—and that’s to say nothing of the environmental factors that shape our minds and bodies. With a prescient look at today’s leading research, Zimmer explores what we know about heredity and what we still have to learn.

Close Encounters with Humankind: A Paleoanthropologist Investigates Our Evolving Species

From the moment our hominin ancestors rose to their feet and embarked to populate the world, our species has been evolving. Our forebears created social structures, moved into new climates, learned to sow and reap and developed ever more sophisticated technology as civilizations began to cover the globe. Ever since, archaeological clues of the distant past, such as skulls and stone tools, have given paleoanthropologists an increasingly comprehensive understanding of human ancestors, where they came from, and where they went. In Close Encounters with Humankind, leading Korean paleoanthropologist Sang-Hee Lee explores the rise of homo sapiens, chronicling the latest discoveries and research, and exploring the question of why our species survived while our fellow ancestors such as the Neanderthals were left behind.

Wilding: The Return of Nature to a British Farm

After concluding that farming their clay-covered land south of London wasn’t economically viable, author Isabella Tree and her husband made a dramatic choice: turn the land back over to the wild. In Wilding, Tree chronicles the story of the “Knepp experiment,” an effort to restore 3,500 acres of England from farmland to wilderness. By introducing large mammals that resemble the animals that once freely roamed England, such as cattle, pigs, horses and deer, Tree’s experiment produced a remarkably vibrant wildlife sanctuary after just a decade of rewilding the land. Vulnerable and rare species, such as turtle doves and emperor butterflies, now freely reproduce in the Knepp preserve. In a story that is part personal memoir, part work of conservation, Tree reveals the capacity of the wild to reclaim the land—as long as humans step out of the way.

What the Future Looks Like: Scientists Predict the Next Great Discoveries―and Reveal How Today’s Breakthroughs Are Already Shaping Our World

In a sweeping look at the state of numerous fields of research, theoretical physicist Jim Al-Khalili edits a collection of essays by leading scientists on everything from artificial intelligence to teleportation. Will humans settle on other planets? Will we augment ourselves with bionics? Can we permanently rid ourselves of disease, or balance our insatiable need for energy with our planet’s rapidly changing climate? These questions and more are addressed using recent discoveries and breakthroughs as a possible view of what is yet to come. When it comes to what the future looks like, we cannot know with certainty—but this book provides some educated guesses.

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Major reference works

Integrative, Qualitative and Computational Approaches

Encyclopedia of Bone Biology

Encyclopedia of Gastroenterology

Encyclopedia of Biomedical Engineering

Encyclopedia of Biomedical Gerontology

Encyclopedia of Microbiology

Encyclopedia of Pharmacy Practice and Clinical Pharmacy

Encyclopedia of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

Encyclopedia of Cardiovascular Research and Medicine

Encyclopedia of Endocrine Diseases

Encyclopedia of Reproduction

International Encyclopedia of Public Health

Encyclopedia of Cell Biology

Encyclopedia of Immunobiology

Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs

The International Encyclopedia of Adverse Drug Reactions and Interactions


In Stitches by Anthony Youn

Growing up in a small town where diversity was uncommon, Dr Youn, an Asian-American kid with thick glasses and a massive protruding jaw, stuck out from his classmates like a sore thumb.

However, his visit to an oral surgeon to get his jaw reconstructed let to a major breakthrough in his life’s calling. Youn went on to become an extremely successful celebrity plastic surgeon, and he explains in this book how he achieved this.

Medicine students will be able to relate to his student filled with study, and his attempts to master dating while trying to complete a medicine degree.

In Stitches lives up to its name, both leaving you in stitches with Youn’s sense of humor as well as leaving you contemplating what he had to say.


Recommendation of a comprehensive book on the history of medicine - Biology

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The Liberation Trilogy by Rick Atkinson

Rick Atkinson didn’t write the book about World War II, he wrote the books. His three-volume series, An Army at Dawn: The War in North Africa, 1942-1943, The Day of the Battle: The War in Sicily and Italy, 1943-1944, and The Guns at Last Light: The War in Western Europe, 1944-1945, is about the best resource you could ask for when it comes to a comprehensive telling of America’s role in the entirety of the Western Theater of WWII. In reading the books , it’s shocking to learn at first how ill-prepared America was for war and amazing just how good we got at waging it in less than half a decade. Through the course of the books , you follow generals and GIs as, slowly but steadily, the tide turns from a harrowing defensive fight against Axis forces to a certain and total victory.


Watch the video: Соцсети взламывают нам мозг. Как они управляют миллиардами людей? АЛГОРИТМ. Серия 1 (August 2022).