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5.3.8: Data Dive- Global Renewable Energy Generation - Biology

5.3.8: Data Dive- Global Renewable Energy Generation - Biology



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Overview

Our World in Data (OWID) is a scientific online publication that focuses on using research and data to help tackle global concerns such as poverty, disease, hunger, climate change, war, and inequitable treatment of our world’s most vulnerable and unstable communities. One example graph, seen below, illustrates renewable energy generation:

Figure(PageIndex{a}): Global renewable energy generation. Graph by Our World in Data (CC-BY).

Questions

  1. What renewable energy source has had the most consistent use globally?
  2. Based on what you have learned in the chapter, what sources do you think are in the “other” category? Don’t peek on the website!
  3. Describe the pattern you see for the “other” category for 1965 to 2019.
  4. Moving into the future, which renewable energy source do you think will grow the most in the next 50 years? Why?

The number of species on the planet, or in any geographical area, is the result of an equilibrium of two evolutionary processes that are ongoing: speciation and extinction. When speciation rates begin to outstrip extinction rates, the number of species will increase. Likewise, the reverse is true when extinction rates begin to overtake speciation rates. Throughout the history of life on Earth, as reflected in the fossil record, these two processes have fluctuated to a greater or lesser extent, sometimes leading to dramatic changes in the number of species on the planet as reflected in the fossil record (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Extinction intensity as reflected in the fossil record has fluctuated throughout Earth’s history. Sudden and dramatic losses of biodiversity, called mass extinctions, have occurred five times.

Paleontologists have identified five layers in the fossil record that appear to show sudden and dramatic losses in biodiversity. These are called mass extinctions and are characterized by more than half of all species disappearing from the fossil record. There are many lesser, yet still dramatic, extinction events, but the five mass extinctions have attracted the most research into their causes. An argument can be made that the five mass extinctions are only the five most extreme events in a continuous series of large extinction events throughout the fossil record (since 542 million years ago). The most recent extinction in geological time, about 65 million years ago, saw the disappearance of most dinosaurs species (except birds) and many other species. Most scientists now agree the main cause of this extinction was the impact of a large asteroid in the present-day Yucatán Peninsula and the subsequent energy release and global climate changes caused by dust ejected into the atmosphere.


5.3.8: Data Dive- Global Renewable Energy Generation - Biology

Appendix B: Technology keywords

The detailed Technology keywords are divided into 11 main sectors (Level 1), 61 sub-sectors (Level 2) and 328 specific branches (Level 3):

The Technology keywords was updated in Q4 2013. In this version, the obsolete keywords that have been removed from the Merlin database are written in red , while newly added keywords are written in blue , and keywords that have changed level are written in green . You can still use obsolete keywords to search for profiles created before the list was updated, but you will not be able to use them when creating new profiles.

Note: When creating a new profile for a client in Merlin, you must use level 3 keywords in order to provide as much infor­mation as possible about the profile. When creating a new event, you can select level 1 or level 2 keywords.

001 - Electronics, IT and Telecoms

1 Electronics, Microelectronics (001001)

1.1 Automation, Robotics Control Systems (001001001)

1.2 Digital Systems, Digital Representation (001001002)

1.3 Electronic engineering (001001004)

1.4 Embedded Systems and Real Time Systems (001001005)

1.5 High Frequency Technology, Microwaves (001001006)

1.6 Magnetic and Superconductory Materials/Devices (001001007)

1.7 Microengineering (001001008)

1.8 Micromachining (001001009)

1.9 Nanotechnologies related to electronics & microelectronics (001001010)

1.10 Optical Networks and Systems (001001011)

1.11 Peripherals Technologies (Mass Data Storage, Display Technologies) related to Electronics and Microelectronics (001001012)

1.12 Printed Circuits and Integrated Circuits (001001013)

1.13 Quantum Informatics (001001014)

1.14 Semiconductors (001001015)

1.15 Smart Cards and Access Systems (001001016)

1.16 Environmental and Biometrics Sensors, Actuators (001001017)

2 Information Processing, Information System, Workflow Management (001002)

2.1 Advanced Systems Architecture (001002001)

2.2 Archivistics/Documentation/Technical Documentation (001002002)

2.3 Artificial Intelligence (AI) (001002003)

2.4 Computer Games (001002004)

2.5 Computer Hardware (001002005)

2.6 Computer Software (001002006)

2.7 Computer Technology/Graphics, Meta Computing (001002007)

2.8 Data Processing/Data Interchange, Middleware (001002008)

2.9 Data Protection, Storage Technology, Cryptography, Data Security (001002009)

2.10 Databases, Database Management, Data Mining (001002010)

2.11 Electronic Commerce, Electronic Payment (001002011)

2.12 Imaging, Image Processing, Pattern Recognition (001002012)

2.13 Information Technology/Informatics (001002013)

2.14 Internet Technologies/Communication (Wireless, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth) (001002014)

2.15 Knowledge Management, Process Management (001002015)

2.17 Speech Processing/Technology (001002017)

2.18 User Interfaces, Usability (001002018)

2.19 Electronic Signature (001002019)

2.20 Building Automation Software (001002020)

2.21 Remote Control (001002021)

2.22 Smart Appliances (001002022)

2.23 Internet of Things (001002023)

2.24 Environmental and Biometrics Sensors, Actuators (001002024)

2.25 Cloud Technologies (001002025)

3 IT and Telematics Applications (001003)

3.1 Applications for Health (001003001)

3.2 Applications for Tourism (001003002)

3.3 Applications for Transport and Logistics (001003003)

3.4 ASP Application Service Providing (001003004)

3.6 Environment Management Systems & Documental Management Systems (001003006)

3.7 GIS Geographical Information Systems (001003007)

3.8 CRM - Customer relationship Management (001003008)

3.9 Quality Management System (001003009)

3.10 Maintenance Management System (001003010)

3.11 Operation Planning and Scheduler System (001003011)

3.12 Didactic System (001003012)

3.13 ICM – Internet Content Management (001003013)

3.14 Analysis Risk Management (001003014)

3.15 Work Hygiene and Safety Management(001003015)

3.16 ERP - Electronic Resources Planning (001003016)

3.17 Serious Games (001003017)

4.1 Cultural Heritage (001004001)

4.3 E-Publishing, Digital Content (001004003)

4.4 Human Language Technologies (001004004)

4.5 Information Filtering, Semantics, Statistics (001004005)

4.6 Visualisation, Virtual Reality (001004006)

5 Telecommunications, Networking (001005)

5.1 Audiovisual Equipment and Communication (001005001)

5.2 Broadband Technologies (001005002)

5.3 Mobile Communications (001005003)

5.4 Narrow Band Technologies (001005004)

5.5 Network Technology, Network Security (001005005)

5.7 Research Networking, GRID (001005007)

5.8 Satellite Technology/Systems/Positioning/Communication in GPS – Global Positioning System (001005008)

5.9 Signal Processing (001005009)

5.11 Description to Sound and Music Computing (001005011)

5.12 Description Image/Video Computing (001005012)

5.13 Communications Protocols, Interoperability (001005013)

5.14 Residential Gateaway (001005014)

5.15 VoIP telephony, remote access (001005015)

6 Electronic circuits, components and equipment (001006)

6.2 Electronic engineering (001006002)

6.3 Embedded Systems and Real Time Systems (001006003)

6.4 High Frequency Technology, Microwaves (001006004)

6.5 Magnetic and superconductory materials/devices (001006005)

6.6 Nanotechnologies related to electronics & microelectronics (001006006)

6.7 Optical Networks and Systems (001006007)

6.8 Micro and Nanotechnologies related to Electronics and Microelectronics (001006008)

6.9 Peripherals Technologies (Mass Data Storage, Displays) (001006009)

6.10 Printed circuits and integrated circuits (001006010)

6.11 Quantum Informatics (001006011)

6.12 Semiconductors (001006012)

6.13 Smart cards and access systems (001006013)

002 - Industrial manufacturing, material and transport technologies

1 Design and Modelling/Prototypes (002001)

2 Industrial Manufacture (002002)

2.1 Cleaning (sandblasting, brushing) (002002001)

2.4 Erosion, Removal (spark erosion, flame cutting, laser/plasma cutting, electrochemical erosion, waterjet cutting) (002002004)

2.5 Forming (rolling, forging, pressing, drawing) (002002005)

2.6 Hardening, heat treatment (002002006)

2.7 Joining techniques (riveting, screw driving, gluing) (002002007)

2.8 Jointing (soldering, welding, sticking) (002002008)

2.9 Machine Tools (002002009)

2.10 Machining (turning, drilling, moulding, milling, planning, cutting) (002002010)

2.11 Machining, fine (grinding, lapping) (002002011)

2.12 Mixing (powder, etc.), separation (sorting, filtering) (002002012)

2.13 Moulding, injection moulding, extrusion, sintering (002002013)

2.14 Surface treatment (painting, galvano, polishing, CVD, PVD) (002002014)

2.16 Microassembly, nanoassembly (002002016)

2.17 Microengineering and nanoengineering (002002017)

2.18 Micropostioning, nanopositioning (002002018)

2.19 Micromachining, nanomachining (002002019)

2.20 Moulding, injection moulding, sintering (002002020)

3 Process control and logistics (002003)

3.1 Component integration (002003001)

3.2 Information processing & Systems, Workflow (002003002)

3.3 Manufacturing plants networks (002003003)

3.1 Process automation (002003004)

3.2 Prototypes, trials and pilot schemes (002003005)

3.3 Supply chain (002003006)

4 Plant Design and Maintenance (002004)

5 Packaging/Handling (002005)

5.3 Packaging for machines (002005003)

5.4 Packaging for materials (002005004)

5.5 Plastic bags (002005005)

6 Construction Technology (002006)

6.1 Building Materials, Components and Methods (002006001)

6.2 Civil engineering (002006002)

6.3 Construction Equipment (002006003)

6.4 Fire Resistance/Safety (002006004)

6.5 Mechanical Engineering, Hydraulics, Vibration and Acoustic Engineering related to construction technology (002006005)

6.6 Pipeline Technology (002006006)

6.7 Pulp Technology related to construction technology (002006007)

6.8 Sensory/Multisensory Technology, Instrumentation related to construction technology (002006008)

6.9 Simulation, Simulation Engineering (002006009)

6.10 Sound Insulation (002006010)

6.11 Vacuum/High Vacuum Technology (002006011)

6.14 Construction engineering (design, simulation) (002006014)

6.15 Management of construction process & life (002006015)

6.16 Materials, components and systems for construction (002006016)

6.17 Construction maintenance and monitoring methods & equipment (002006017)

6.18 Construction methods and equipment (002006018)

6.19 Installations related to construction (energy, lighting. ) (002006019)

7 Materials Technology (002007)

7.2 Building materials (002007002)

7.3 Ceramic Materials and Powders (002007003)

7.4 Colours and varnish (002007004)

7.5 Composite materials (002007005)

7.6 Fine Chemicals, Dyes and Inks (002007006)

7.8 Iron and Steel, Steelworks (002007008)

7.9 Materials Handling Technology (solids, fluids, gases) (002007009)

7.10 Metals and Alloys (002007010)

7.11 Non-ferrous Metals (002007011)

7.12 Optical Materials (002007012)

7.13 Plastics, Polymers (002007014)

7.14 Properties of Materials, Corrosion/Degradation (002007015)

7.17 Advanced Textile Materials (002007018)

7.18 Paper technology (002007024)

7.19 Carbon nanotubes (002007025)

7.20 Hybrid materials (002007026)

7.21 Biobased materials (002007027)

7.22 Nanomaterials (002007028)

7.23 Conductive materials (002007029)

7.24 Lightweight materials (002007030)

8 Transport Infrastructure (002008)

8.1 Air Transport (002008001)

8.2 Intermodal Transport (002008002)

8.4 Railway Transport (002008004)

8.5 Road Transport (002008005)

8.6 Traffic Engineering/Control Systems (002008006)

8.7 Transhipment Systems (002008007)

8.8 Water Transport (002008008)

9 Transport and Shipping Technologies (002009)

9.1 Design of Vehicles (002009001)

9.2 Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (002009002)

9.3 Railway Vehicles (002009003)

9.4 Road Vehicles (002009004)

9.5 Shipbuilding (002009005)

9.6 Traction/Propulsion Systems (002009006)

9.7 Switches and wiring (002009007)

9.8 Automotive engineering (002009008)

9.9 Lightweight construction (002009009)

9.10 Automotive electrical and electronics (002009010)

9.11 Navigation and embedded systems (002009011)

9.12 Transmission systems (002009012)

9.13 Audio / video (002009013)

9.14 Electrical supply system (002009014)

9.15 Artificial intelligence applications for cars and transport (002009015)

9.16 Security systems (002009016)

9.17 Energy supply system (002009017)

9.18 Air pollution control for cars and transport (002009018)

9.19 Lighting and signaling system (002009019)

9.20 Braking system (002009020)

9.21 Sensors for cars and transport (002009021)

9.22 Powertrain and chassis (002009022)

9.23 Ignition system (002009023)

9.24 Measurement devices (002009024)

9.25 Interior equipment (002009025)

9.26 Charging system (002009026)

9.27 Body and main parts (002009027)

10 Aerospace Technology (002010)

10.1 Aeronautical technology/Avionics (002010001)

10.4 Satellite Navigation Systems (002010004)

10.5 Space Exploration and Technology (002010005)

10.6 Guidance and control (002010006)

10.8 Thermal insulation for space applications (002010008)

11 Traffic, mobility (002011)

11.1 Engineering (002011001)

11.2 System and transportation (002011002)

11.3 Planning and security (002011003)

003 - Other industrial technologies

1 Other Industrial Technologies (003001)

1.1 Cleaning Technology (003001001)

2 Process Plant Engineering (003002)

3 Apparatus Engineering (003003)

4 Chemical Technology and Engineering (003004)

4.1 Agro chemicals (003004001)

4.2 Anorganic Substances (003004002)

4.3 Colours, dyes related to Chemical Technology and engineering (003004003)

4.4 Electrical Engineering and Technology/Electrical Equipment (003004004)

4.5 Man made fibres (003004005)

4.6 Organic Substances (003004006)

4.7 Pharmaceutics (003004007)

4.8 Plastics and Rubber related to Chemical Technology and engineering (003004008)

4.9 Soaps, detergents (003004009)

4.10 Special chemicals, intermediates (003004010)

4.11 Care, Hygiene, Beauty (0030040011)

5 Textiles Technology (003005)

5.1 Component adhesives for strengthening of seam (003005001)

5.2 Dry filling related to Textiles Technology (003005002)

5.3 Dyeing related to Textiles Technology (003005003)

5.4 Finisher related to Textiles Technology (003005004)

5.5 Non weaving related to Textiles Technology (003005005)

5.6 Solvent based glues for strengthening of edges and seam (003005006)

5.7 Thermoplastic textile fibres (003005007)

5.8 Weaving related to Textiles Technology (003005008)

5.9 Woven technical textiles for industrial applications (003005009)

5.10 Textile fibres (003005010)

6 Footwear/Leather Technology (003006)

6.1 Dry filling related to Footwear/Leather Technology (003006001)

6.2 Dyes related to Footwear/Leather Technology (003006002)

6.3 Tanned leather process related to Footwear/Leather Technology (003006003)

7 Sound Engineering/Technology (003007)

8 Mining Technologies (003008)

9.2 Printed Reel Material (003009002)

10 Household Goods & Appliances (003010)

1 Energy storage and transport (004001)

1.1 Heat storage (004001001)

1.2 Heat transport and supply, district heating (004001002)

1.3 Storage of electricity, batteries (004001003)

1.4 Transmission of electricity (004001004)

1.5 Transport and storage of gas and liquid fuels (004001005)

1.6 Transport and storage of hydrogen (004001006)

1.7 Power to gas technology (004001007)

2 Energy production, transmission and conversion (004002)

2.1 Fuel cell, hydrogen production (004002001)

2.2 Fuel liquefaction, gasification (004002002)

2.3 Furnace technology, construction of heating boilers (004002003)

2.4 Generators, electric engines and power converters (004002004)

2.5 Heat exchangers (004002005)

2.6 Heat pump, cooling technologies (004002006)

2.7 Heating, ventilation (004002007)

2.8 Turbines, fluid machinery, reciprocating engines, combined heat and power (004002008)

2.9 Combined heat and power (CHP) engines (004002009)

2.10 Other energy related machinery (004002010)

2.12 Hydrogen production (004002012)

2.13 Micro-generation and grid connection (004002013)

2.15 Smart grids (004002015)

2.16 Furnace and boiler technologies (004002016)

2.17 Compression and liquefaction of gases (004002017)

2.18 Cooling technologies (004002018)

3 Fossil Energy Sources (004003)

3.1 Coal and Hydrocarbons (004003001)

3.2 Gaseous fossil fuel (004003002)

3.3 Solid fossil fuel (004003003)

3.4 Liquid fossil fuel (004003004)

3.5 Mining and extraction (004003005)

4 Nuclear Fission/Nuclear Fusion (004004)

5 Renewable Sources of Energy (004005)

5.1 Gaseous biomass (004005001)

5.2 Geothermal energy (004005002)

5.4 Liquid biomass (004005004)

5.5 Photovoltaics (004005005)

5.6 Solar/Thermal energy (004005006)

5.7 Solid biomass (004005007)

5.8 Unconventional and Alternative Energies (004005008)

5.9 Waste incineration (004005009)

5.10 Wind energy (004005010)

5.11 Waste to energy other (004005011)

5.12 Energy from wastewater (004005012)

5.13 Bio-refineries for energy (004005013)

5.14 Liquid biofuels (004005014)

5.15 Integrated waste-energy processes (004005015)

6 Rational use of energy (004006)

6.1 Energy management (004006001)

6.2 Lighting, illumination (004006002)

6.3 Process optimisation, waste heat utilisation (004006003)

6.4 Thermal insulation, energy efficiency in buildings (004006004)

6.5 Low, zero and plus energy rating (004006005)

6.6 Thermal insulation (004006006)

6.7 Lighting, illumination (004006007)

6.1 Energy management (004006008)

6.2 Process optimisation, waste heat utilisation (004006009)

7 Other Energy Topics (004007)

7.1 Combustion, Flames (004007001)

7.2 Fuel Technology (004007002)

7.3 Fuels and engine technologies (004007003)

7.4 Micro- and Nanotechnology related to energy (004007004)

8 Energy Efficiency (004008)

9 Carbon capture and energy (004009)

10 Biogas and anerobic digestion (AD) (004010)

005 - Physical and exact sciences

2.1 Analytical Chemistry (005002001)

2.2 Computational Chemistry and Modelling (005002002)

2.3 Inorganic Chemistry (005002003)

2.4 Organic Chemistry (005002004)

2.5 Petrochemistry, Petroleum Engineering (005002005)

3.1 Geology, Geological Engineering, Geotechnics (005003001)

3.2 Oceanography (005003001)

3.3 Tectonics, Seismology (005003001)

4 Mathematics, Statistics (005004)

4.1 Algorithms and Complexity (005004001)

4.2 Mathematical modelling (005004002)

4.3 Statistical Analysis (005004003)

5 Meteorology/Climatology (005005)

5.2 Moisture sensors (005005002)

5.3 Temperature monitoring (005005003)

6.2 Astrophysics/Cosmology (005006002)

6.3 Laser Technology (005006003)

6.4 Nuclear Physics (005006004)

6.5 Physics of Fluids (005006005)

6.6 Sensors/Multisensor Technology, Instrumentation (005006006)

6.7 Solid state physics (005006007)

6.8 Thermodynamics (005006008)

6.9 Vibration and Acoustic engineering (005006009)

7 Mechanical Engineering (005007)

7.1 Micro-Mechanics (005007001)

9 Separation Technologies (005009)

9.1 Filtration and Membrane Processes (005009001)

9.4 Distillation (005009004)

9.6 Other Processes (005009006)

10 Micro- and Nanotechnology related to physical and exact sciences (005010)

11 Micro- and Nanotechnology (005011)

1 Medicine, Human Health (006001)

1.1 Biostatistics, Epidemiology (006001001)

1.2 Care and Health Services (006001002)

1.3 Clinical Research, Trials (006001003)

1.4 Cytology, Cancerology, Oncology (006001004)

1.5 Dentistry/Odontology, Stomatology (006001005)

1.6 Diagnostics, Diagnosis (006001006)

1.8 Environmental Medicine, Social Medicine, Sports Medicine (006001008)

1.9 Gene - DNA Therapy (006001009)

1.10 Gerontology and Geriatrics (006001010)

1.11 Heart and blood circulation illnesses (006001011)

1.12 Electromedical and Medical Equipment (006001012)

1.13 Medical Research (006001013)

1.14 Medical Technology/Biomedical Engineering (006001014)

1.15 Neurology, Brain Research (006001015)

1.16 Pharmaceutical Products/Drugs (006001016)

1.19 Virus, Virology/Antibiotics/Bacteriology (006001019)

1.20   Laboratory Equipment (006001020)

1.21 Rescue and Emergency Equipment (006001021)

1.22 Physiotherapy, Orthopaedic Technology (006001022)

1.23 Single Use Products and Consumer Goods (006001023)

1.24 Medical Textiles (006001024)

1.25 Medical Furniture (006001025)

1.26 Medical Biomaterials (006001026)

1.27 Stem cell Technologies (006001027)

1.28 Human vaccines (006001028)

1.29 Emergency medicine (006001029)

2 Biology/Biotechnology (006002)

2.1 Biochemistry/Biophysics (006001001)

2.2 Cellular and Molecular Biology (006001002)

2.3 Enzymology/Protein Engineering/Fermentation (006001003)

2.4 Genetic Engineering  (006001004)

2.5 In vitro Testing, Trials (006001005)

2.6 Microbiology (006001006)

2.7 Molecular design (006001007)

2.10 Enzyme Technology (006002010)

2.11 Synthetic Biology (006002011)

2.12 Protein Engineering (006002012)

3.1 Bioinformatics (006003001)

3.2 Gene Expression, Proteom Research (006003002)

3.3 Population genetics (006003003)

4 Micro- and Nanotechnology related to Biological sciences (006004)

5.1 Health information management (006006001)

5.2 Remote diagnostics (006006002)

5.3 Safety & systems (006006003)

5.4 Sensors & Wireless products (006006004)

6 Industrial Biotechnology (006007)

6.1 Bio- Composites (006007001)

6.2 Biobased chemical building blocks (006007002)

6.3 Biobased high-performance materials (006007003)

6.4 Biobased Materials (006007004)

6.5 Biological Nanomaterials (006007005)

6.6 Biolubricants (006007006)

6.9 Bioprocesses (006007009)

6.10 Biotensides (006007010)

6.11 Downstream Processing (006007011)

6.12 Fermentation (006007012)

6.13 Ionic Liquids (006007013)

007 - Agriculture and Marine Resources

1.1 Agriculture Machinery/Technology (007001001)

1.2 Animal Production/Husbandry (007001002)

1.4 Crop Production (007001004)

1.5 Horticulture (007001005)

1.7 Precision agriculture (007001007)

1.8 Seed coating (007001008)

1.9 Veterinary Medicine (007001009)

2 Sylviculture, Forestry, Forest technology (007002)

2.1 Forest technology (007002001)

2.2 Paper Technology (007002002)

2.3 Pulp Technology (007002003)

2.4 Sylviculture, Forestry (007002004)

2.5 Wood Products (007002005)

3 Resources of the Sea, Fisheries (007003)

3.2 Fish/Fisheries/Fishing Technology (007003002)

3.3 Marine Science (007003003)

3.4 Micro- and Nanotechnology related to agriculture and marine resources (007003004)


Watch the video: Renewable Energy video Solar Energy (August 2022).