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1.2.2: Applied Microbiology - Biology

1.2.2: Applied Microbiology - Biology


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The information gained by microbiologists can be applied to many medicinal and commercial endeavors.

Learning Objectives

  • Explain applied microbiology

Key Points

  • Using knowledge gained by microbiologists studying microbes, several fields of applied microbiology have formed.
  • While food and medicinal applications are a big portion of applied microbiology, the study of microbes has lead to entire commercial industries which affect almost all aspects of human life.
  • There are a myriad of practical applications that microbiology contributes to, including several parts of food production and medicinal applications.

Key Terms

  • rhizosphere: The soil region subject to the influence of plant roots and their associated microorganisms.
  • biotechnology: The use of living organisms (especially microorganisms) in industrial, agricultural, medical, and other technological applications.
  • pathogenic: Able to cause harmful disease.

Microbiology is the study of microbes, which affect almost every aspect of life on the earth. In addition, there are huge commercial and medicinal benefits in understanding microbes. The application of this understanding is known as applied microbiology. There are many different types of applied microbiology which can be briefly defined as follows:

Medical Microbiology

Medical microbiology is the study of the pathogenic microbes and the role of microbes in human illness. This includes the study of microbial pathogenesis and epidemiology and is related to the study of disease pathology and immunology.

Pharmaceutical Microbiology

The study of microorganisms that are related to the production of antibiotics, enzymes, vitamins, vaccines, and other pharmaceutical products. Pharmaceutical microbiology also studies the causes of pharmaceutical contamination and spoil.

Industrial Microbiology

The exploitation of microbes for use in industrial processes. Examples include industrial fermentation and waste-water treatment. Closely linked to the biotechnology industry. This field also includes brewing, an important application of microbiology.

Microbial Biotechnology

The manipulation of microorganisms at the genetic and molecular level to generate useful products.

Food Microbiology and Dairy Microbiology

The study of microorganisms causing food spoilage and food-borne illness. Microorganisms can also produce foods, for example by fermentation.

Agricultural Microbiology

The study of agriculturally relevant microorganisms. This field can be further classified into the following subfields:

  • Plant microbiology and plant pathology – The study of the interactions between microorganisms and plants and plant pathogens.
  • Soil microbiology – The study of those microorganisms that are found in soil.
  • Veterinary microbiology – The study of the role in microbes in veterinary medicine or animal taxonomy.

Environmental microbiology

The study of the function and diversity of microbes in their natural environments. This involves the characterization of key bacterial habitats such as the rhizosphere and phyllosphere, soil and groundwater ecosystems, open oceans or extreme environments (extremophiles). This field includes other branches of microbiology such as: microbial ecology (the role of microbes in ecosystems), geomicrobiology (interactions between microbes and their physical and chemical surroundings), microbial diversity, water microbiology (the study of those microorganisms that are found in water), aeromicrobiology (the study of airborne microorganisms) and epidemiology (the study of the incidence, spread, and control of disease). Bioremediation involves the application of microbial processes to remove pollutants from the environment.

This is by no means an exhaustive list of the different types of applied microbiology, but gives an indication of the expansive variety of the field and some of the benefits these studies entail.


Program

Terms start in September, May and January. International applications should be completed (and student accepted) at least three months prior to the start of the term to allow time for processing of student visa documents.

Saskatchewan is known as the "bread basket of Canada", referring to its strength as a primary producer of agricultural commodities and its contributions to the natural and applied sciences and biotechnology. The Food and Bioproduct Sciences Department has two main streams of research food science and applied microbiology. Both of these areas involve the development and application of science and technology in pre- and post-harvest agriculture and in adding value to primary agriculture products. In recent years, interdisciplinary research between the two streams has resulted in improved food safety and security, which have pushed the research frontier beyond traditional food and microbial products. The Food and Bioproduct Sciences Department aims to fully utilize renewable bioresources to produce healthy foods and consumer acceptable bioproducts to support our health, the environment, and a sustainable bioeconomy.

Applied microbiology is the study of the microbial world and the way it interacts with our own. It looks at how we can harness and utilize the powers of the microbes in areas ranging from biotechnology to pest control, to bio-refineries, to pharmaceutical applications. A wide range of microbial bioproducts is possible.

Faculty interests include: value-added crop utilization novel techniques to detect food adulteration and traceability lipid quality, utilization and biotechnology food nanotechnology food enzymology meat quality functional foods, nutraceuticals and nutrigenomics microbial bioproducts and biotechnology fermentation and formulation technologies food and environmental microbiology carbohydrate quality and utilization protein quality and utilization biocontrol of molds and mycotoxins and mycology.

The Department of Food and Bioproduct Sciences is housed in the state-of-the-art College of Agriculture and Bioresources building, a prominent edifice on the beautiful USask campus. This research driven unit focuses on small class size, ready access to and help from faculty supervisors, and hands-on experiential training in numerous high-caliber facilities, including laboratories in: food and bioproduct chemistry and analysis food microbiology molecular and environmental microbiology product development and sensory evaluation biotechnology and food and bioproduct processing.


School of Bio Sciences & Technology (SBST)

The School offers 2 years M.Sc. programs in Biotechnology, Biomedical Genetics and Applied Microbiology. It also offers M. Tech in Biotechnology and M.Sc. Integrated Biotechnology (5 Years).

M. Sc. Biotechnology (5 Year Integrated Programme)

  • Excel in professional career and/or higher education by acquiring a solid foundation in science, mathematics, and advanced communication engineering and technologies
  • Develop and apply engineering solutions for solving contemporary, social and human issues with realistic constraints suitable for the present need through the use of modern tools.
  • Exhibit professional and ethical standards, effective communication skills, teamwork spirit, multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary approach for successful careers and to be able to compete globally, function as leaders, as entrepreneurs, and manage information efficiently and to engage in lifelong learning
  • A clear understanding of the subject related concepts and of contemporary issues
  • Problem solving ability- solving social issues and engineering problems
  • A clear understanding of professional and ethical responsibility
  • Interest in lifelong learning
  • Adaptive thinking and adaptability
  • Cross cultural competency exhibited by working in teams
  • An ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as to analyze and interpret data
  • A good working knowledge of communicating in English
  • An ability to use techniques, skills and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice
  • A good cognitive load management [discriminate and filter the available data] skills
  • Gain and apply knowledge to plan, analyze and find innovative solutions in the field of biological sciences
  • Explore problems and provide valid solutions through the industry-academia interactions
  • Acquire interdisciplinary knowledge in the areas of biological, chemical, environmental and technical sciences for the benefit of society.

Graduates will have a broad scope in the field of biotechnology. The opportunities are enormous in India and abroad. The field of biotechnology is expected to grow exponentially in the coming years offering opportunities in the field of research, engineering, industry, consultancy, and entrepreneurship.

Molecular biology / Bioprocess Technology / Immuno-technology / Enzyme Technology / Analytical Instrumentation / Pharmaceutical Biotechnology / Genetic Engineering / Animal Biotechnology / Plant Biotechnology.

Biomedical Engineering / Tissue Engineering / Management Bioethics.

M.Tech. Biotechnology

  • Excel in professional career and/or higher education by acquiring solid foundation in science, mathematics and advanced communication engineering and technologies
  • Develop and apply engineering solutions for solving contemporary, social and human issues with realistic constraints suitable for the present need through the use of modern tools.
  • Exhibit professional and ethical standards, effective communication skills, teamwork spirit, multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary approach for successful careers and to be able to compete globally, function as leaders, as entrepreneurs, and manage information efficiently and to engage in lifelong learning
  • An ability to apply mathematics and science in engineering applications
  • An ability to design a component or a product applying all the relevant standards and with realistic constraints
  • Problem solving ability- solving social issues and engineering problems
  • A clear understanding of professional and ethical responsibility
  • Adaptive thinking and adaptability
  • An ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as to analyze and interpret data
  • An ability to use techniques, skills and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice
  • Critical thinking and innovative skills
  • An good cognitive load management [discriminate and filter the available data] skills
  • Acquire students with skills of biotechnology and provide solutions through industry-academia interface
  • Empower the students to be effective entrepreneurs and excellent researchers to invent unique products for societal need with proper ethical statutes
  • Ability to independently carry out research and development work to solve the practical problems
  • As Scientists in R & D Laboratories
  • As Process Engineers and Quality control
  • Control Managers in Biotech Industries

Advanced Biochemistry / Molecular Biology / Biostatistics / Computer Programming / Gene Cloning Technology / Bioinformatics / Downstream Processing of Bio – Products / Immuno- Technology / Genomics and Proteomics / Industrial Biotechnology / Molecular Biology / Bioprocess Technology / In-Plant Training.

Animal and Medical Biotechnology / Environmental Biotechnology / Business Enterprises in Bio-Technology / Modelling in Biology / Biodiversity and Bio-prospecting / Nano- Biotechnology / Protein Engineering.

M.Sc. Applied Microbiology

  • Excel in professional career and/or higher education by acquiring a solid foundation in science, mathematics, and advanced communication engineering and technologies
  • Develop and apply engineering solutions for solving contemporary, social and human issues with realistic constraints suitable for the present need through the use of modern tools.
  • Exhibit professional and ethical standards, effective communication skills, teamwork spirit, multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary approach for successful careers and to be able to compete globally, function as leaders, as entrepreneurs, and manage information efficiently and to engage in lifelong learning
  • A clear understanding of the subject related concepts and contemporary issues
  • An ability to be socially intelligent with good SIQ (Social Intelligence Quotient) and EQ (Emotional Quotient)
  • Computational thinking (Ability to translate vast data into abstract concepts and to understand database reasoning)
  • Virtual Collaborating ability
  • Problem-solving ability- solving social issues and engineering problems
  • A clear understanding of professional and ethical responsibility
  • Cross-cultural competency exhibited by working in teams
  • A good working knowledge of communicating in English
  • Critical thinking and innovative skills
  • Having a good digital footprint
  • Acquire expertise in the applications of microbial functioning at the advanced level.
  • Equip students to make use of tools, technologies, and methods of microbiology and to apply the scientific methods
  • Ability to independently carry out research and development work to solve the practical problems

In Pharmaceutical companies, breweries, diagnostic and R & D labs, and the healthcare industry.

Microbial Diversity / Microbial Physiology and metabolism/Bacteriology/Virology/ Mycology / Parasitology / Fermentation Technology/ Environmental Microbiology / Molecular Microbial Genetics / Agricultural Microbiology / Immunology and Immunotechnology / Research Methodology and Biostatistics / Food Microbiology / Bioethics and IPR.

Bioinformatics / Fungal Biotechnology / Bioremediation / Medical Microbiology / Food Preservation Technology / Bio-Business and Entrepreneurship / Industrial Microbiology / Microbial Nanotechnology.

M.Sc. Biomedical Genetics

  • Excel in professional career and/or higher education by acquiring a solid foundation in science, mathematics, and advanced communication engineering and technologies
  • Develop and apply engineering solutions for solving contemporary, social and human issues with realistic constraints suitable for the present need through the use of modern tools.
  • Exhibit professional and ethical standards, effective communication skills, teamwork spirit, multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary approach for successful careers and to be able to compete globally, function as leaders, as entrepreneurs, and manage information efficiently and to engage in lifelong learning
  • A clear understanding of the subject related concepts and contemporary issues
  • An ability to be socially intelligent with good SIQ (Social Intelligence Quotient) and EQ (Emotional Quotient)
  • Computational thinking (Ability to translate vast data into abstract concepts and to understand database reasoning)
  • Virtual Collaborating ability
  • Problem-solving ability- solving social issues and engineering problems
  • A clear understanding of professional and ethical responsibility
  • Cross-cultural competency exhibited by working in teams
  • A good working knowledge of communicating in English
  • Critical thinking and innovative skills
  • A good digital footprint
  • Apply knowledge of genetic principles and understand how they contribute to etiology, clinical features, and disease expression.
  • Exhibit the knowledge of ethical legal, and social issues about genetic counseling
  • Ability to independently carry out research and development work to solve the practical problems

In health care industries, Pharmaceutical companies, Diagnostics, R & D organizations and hospitals

Biochemistry/Cell and Molecular Biology/ Principles of Genetics/ Human Immunology/ Clinical Cytogenetics/ Human Molecular Genetics/ Human Biochemical Genetics/ Developmental Genetics /Human Anatomy and Physiology.

Genetics of Human Infertility / Analytical Techniques for Genetics/ Genetic Counseling / Ethical , Legal and Social Issues in Genetic Counseling / Radiation Genetics / Cognitive and Behavioral Genetics / Forensic Science / Stem Cell Biology / Medical Biochemistry / Genetic Engineering / Cancer Genetics/ Environmental Genetics/ Introduction to Human Psychology.

  • Inculcate knowledge in mathematics, science, and engineering.
  • Understand a scientific problem and conduct experiments, as well as to analyze and interpret data.
  • Design experimental protocols, component, or process to meet desired needs within realistic constraints such as economic, environmental, social, political, ethical, health care and safety, manufacturability, and sustainability.
  • Develop skills to formulate, and solve engineering problems an understanding of professional and ethical responsibility.
  • Demonstrate oral and written communication skills.
  • Understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental, and societal context.
  • Ability to conduct research, work in a team and contribute to the goals of the team.

M. Sc. Biotechnology

  • Excel in professional career and/or higher education by acquiring solid foundation in science, mathematics and advanced communication engineering and technologies
  • Develop and apply engineering solutions for solving contemporary, social and human issues with realistic constraints suitable for the present need through the use of modern tools.
  • Exhibit professional and ethical standards, effective communication skills, teamwork spirit, multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary approach for successful careers and to be able to compete globally, function as leaders, as entrepreneurs, and manage information efficiently and to engage in lifelong learning
  • A clear understanding of the subject related concepts and of contemporary issues
  • An ability to be socially intelligent with good SIQ (Social Intelligence Quotient) and EQ (Emotional Quotient)
  • Computational thinking (Ability to translate vast data in to abstract concepts and to understand database reasoning)
  • Virtual Collaborating ability
  • Problem solving ability- solving social issues and engineering problems
  • A clear understanding of professional and ethical responsibility
  • Ccross cultural competency exhibited by working in teams
  • A good working knowledge of communicating in English
  • Critical thinking and innovative skills
  • A good digital footprint

Graduates will have a broad scope in the field of biotechnology. The opportunities are enormous in India and abroad. The field of biotechnology is expected to grow exponentially in the coming years offering opportunities in the field of research, engineering, industry, consultancy, and entrepreneurship.

  • Apply the principles of molecular biology methods with emphasis on the application of recombinant DNA technology to animals, plants and microbial organisms
  • Manipulate living organisms and biological systems to produce products that advance healthcare, medicine, agriculture, food, pharmaceuticals and environmental control
  • Ability to independently carry out research and development work to solve the practical problems

Communicative English / Bio-statistics and Research Methodology / Computer Applications and Project in the Final semester. Programme Core Courses Advanced Biochemistry / Analytical Techniques in Biotechnology / Bioprocess technology/ Microbiology / Cell and Molecular Biology / Immunology / Agricultural Biotechnology/ Aquatic and Environmental Biotechnology / Genetic Engineering / Genomics and Proteomics/ Medical Biotechnology and Bio-informatics Programme.

Biophysics / Bioengineering / Nanotechnology / Cancer Biology / Nutraceuticals / Enzyme Engineering / Systems Biology / Signal Transduction and Stem Cell Biology / Bio-ethics and Bio-safety and Bio-business.


Table of Contents

  • 1 An Invisible World
  • 2 How We See the Invisible World
  • 3 The Cell
  • 4 Prokaryotic Diversity
  • 5 The Eukaryotes of Microbiology
  • 6 Acellular Pathogens
  • 7 Microbial Biochemistry
  • 8 Microbial Metabolism
  • 9 Microbial Growth
  • 10 Biochemistry of the Genome
  • 11 Mechanisms of Microbial Genetics
  • 12 Modern Applications of Microbial Genetics
  • 13 Control of Microbial Growth
  • 14 Antimicrobial Drugs
  • 15 Microbial Mechanisms of Pathogenicity
  • 16 Disease and Epidemiology
  • 17 Innate Nonspecific Host Defenses
  • 18 Adaptive Specific Host Defenses
  • 19 Diseases of the Immune System
  • 20 Laboratory Analysis of the Immune Response
  • 21 Skin and Eye Infections
  • 22 Respiratory System Infections
  • 23 Urogenital System Infections
  • 24 Digestive System Infections
  • 25 Circulatory and Lymphatic System Infections
  • 26 Nervous System Infections

Fundamentals of Physics and Chemistry Important to Microbiology
Mathematical Basics
Metabolic Pathways
Taxonomy of Clinically Relevant Microorganisms
Glossary


Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology

Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology is a peer-reviewed, open access, quarterly published international journal of microbiology strives to provide a forum for worldwide scientific researchers, academics, clinicians and microbiologists for publication of high quality reviews, research articles, short communications and clinical studies pertaining to all aspects of microbiology and its allied disciplines. All original articles reporting work on micro-organisms including viruses, bacteria, algae and fungi are welcomed. Articles must present information that is novel, has high impact and interest, and is of high scientific quality that makes significant contribution to the field as a whole. Join the conversation about this journal

The set of journals have been ranked according to their SJR and divided into four equal groups, four quartiles. Q1 (green) comprises the quarter of the journals with the highest values, Q2 (yellow) the second highest values, Q3 (orange) the third highest values and Q4 (red) the lowest values.

CategoryYearQuartile
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology2008Q4
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology2009Q4
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology2010Q4
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology2011Q4
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology2012Q4
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology2013Q4
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology2014Q4
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology2015Q4
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology2016Q4
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology2017Q4
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology2018Q4
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology2019Q4
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology2020Q4
Biotechnology2008Q4
Biotechnology2009Q4
Biotechnology2010Q4
Biotechnology2011Q4
Biotechnology2012Q4
Biotechnology2013Q4
Biotechnology2014Q4
Biotechnology2015Q4
Biotechnology2016Q4
Biotechnology2017Q4
Biotechnology2018Q4
Biotechnology2019Q4
Biotechnology2020Q4
Microbiology2008Q4
Microbiology2009Q4
Microbiology2010Q4
Microbiology2011Q4
Microbiology2012Q4
Microbiology2013Q4
Microbiology2014Q4
Microbiology2015Q4
Microbiology2016Q4
Microbiology2017Q4
Microbiology2018Q4
Microbiology2019Q4
Microbiology2020Q4

The SJR is a size-independent prestige indicator that ranks journals by their 'average prestige per article'. It is based on the idea that 'all citations are not created equal'. SJR is a measure of scientific influence of journals that accounts for both the number of citations received by a journal and the importance or prestige of the journals where such citations come from It measures the scientific influence of the average article in a journal, it expresses how central to the global scientific discussion an average article of the journal is.

YearSJR
20080.160
20090.118
20100.150
20110.140
20120.125
20130.116
20140.132
20150.137
20160.136
20170.123
20180.124
20190.130
20200.149

Evolution of the number of published documents. All types of documents are considered, including citable and non citable documents.

YearDocuments
200770
2008107
2009133
2010147
2011168
2012302
2013609
2014771
2015393
2016315
2017248
2018266
2019278
2020292

This indicator counts the number of citations received by documents from a journal and divides them by the total number of documents published in that journal. The chart shows the evolution of the average number of times documents published in a journal in the past two, three and four years have been cited in the current year. The two years line is equivalent to journal impact factor ™ (Thomson Reuters) metric.

Cites per documentYearValue
Cites / Doc. (4 years)20070.000
Cites / Doc. (4 years)20080.071
Cites / Doc. (4 years)20090.113
Cites / Doc. (4 years)20100.113
Cites / Doc. (4 years)20110.101
Cites / Doc. (4 years)20120.124
Cites / Doc. (4 years)20130.125
Cites / Doc. (4 years)20140.198
Cites / Doc. (4 years)20150.171
Cites / Doc. (4 years)20160.179
Cites / Doc. (4 years)20170.183
Cites / Doc. (4 years)20180.192
Cites / Doc. (4 years)20190.248
Cites / Doc. (4 years)20200.426
Cites / Doc. (3 years)20070.000
Cites / Doc. (3 years)20080.071
Cites / Doc. (3 years)20090.113
Cites / Doc. (3 years)20100.113
Cites / Doc. (3 years)20110.106
Cites / Doc. (3 years)20120.114
Cites / Doc. (3 years)20130.123
Cites / Doc. (3 years)20140.206
Cites / Doc. (3 years)20150.181
Cites / Doc. (3 years)20160.188
Cites / Doc. (3 years)20170.173
Cites / Doc. (3 years)20180.215
Cites / Doc. (3 years)20190.230
Cites / Doc. (3 years)20200.449
Cites / Doc. (2 years)20070.000
Cites / Doc. (2 years)20080.071
Cites / Doc. (2 years)20090.113
Cites / Doc. (2 years)20100.125
Cites / Doc. (2 years)20110.089
Cites / Doc. (2 years)20120.098
Cites / Doc. (2 years)20130.117
Cites / Doc. (2 years)20140.220
Cites / Doc. (2 years)20150.188
Cites / Doc. (2 years)20160.177
Cites / Doc. (2 years)20170.194
Cites / Doc. (2 years)20180.165
Cites / Doc. (2 years)20190.241
Cites / Doc. (2 years)20200.483

Evolution of the total number of citations and journal's self-citations received by a journal's published documents during the three previous years.
Journal Self-citation is defined as the number of citation from a journal citing article to articles published by the same journal.

CitesYearValue
Self Cites20070
Self Cites20084
Self Cites20095
Self Cites20109
Self Cites20118
Self Cites201217
Self Cites201332
Self Cites201476
Self Cites201518
Self Cites20166
Self Cites20177
Self Cites20187
Self Cites201910
Self Cites202027
Total Cites20070
Total Cites20085
Total Cites200920
Total Cites201035
Total Cites201141
Total Cites201251
Total Cites201376
Total Cites2014222
Total Cites2015304
Total Cites2016333
Total Cites2017256
Total Cites2018206
Total Cites2019191
Total Cites2020356

Evolution of the number of total citation per document and external citation per document (i.e. journal self-citations removed) received by a journal's published documents during the three previous years. External citations are calculated by subtracting the number of self-citations from the total number of citations received by the journal’s documents.

CitesYearValue
External Cites per document20070
External Cites per document20080.014
External Cites per document20090.085
External Cites per document20100.084
External Cites per document20110.085
External Cites per document20120.076
External Cites per document20130.071
External Cites per document20140.136
External Cites per document20150.170
External Cites per document20160.185
External Cites per document20170.168
External Cites per document20180.208
External Cites per document20190.218
External Cites per document20200.415
Cites per document20070.000
Cites per document20080.071
Cites per document20090.113
Cites per document20100.113
Cites per document20110.106
Cites per document20120.114
Cites per document20130.123
Cites per document20140.206
Cites per document20150.181
Cites per document20160.188
Cites per document20170.173
Cites per document20180.215
Cites per document20190.230
Cites per document20200.449

International Collaboration accounts for the articles that have been produced by researchers from several countries. The chart shows the ratio of a journal's documents signed by researchers from more than one country that is including more than one country address.

YearInternational Collaboration
20071.43
20087.48
20096.02
20104.76
20112.38
20125.30
201318.72
201421.14
20156.62
20167.94
20177.66
201811.65
201917.63
202020.55

Not every article in a journal is considered primary research and therefore "citable", this chart shows the ratio of a journal's articles including substantial research (research articles, conference papers and reviews) in three year windows vs. those documents other than research articles, reviews and conference papers.

DocumentsYearValue
Non-citable documents20070
Non-citable documents20080
Non-citable documents20090
Non-citable documents20100
Non-citable documents20110
Non-citable documents20120
Non-citable documents20131
Non-citable documents20142
Non-citable documents20152
Non-citable documents20161
Non-citable documents20170
Non-citable documents20180
Non-citable documents20190
Non-citable documents20200
Citable documents20070
Citable documents200870
Citable documents2009177
Citable documents2010310
Citable documents2011387
Citable documents2012448
Citable documents2013616
Citable documents20141077
Citable documents20151680
Citable documents20161772
Citable documents20171479
Citable documents2018956
Citable documents2019829
Citable documents2020792

Ratio of a journal's items, grouped in three years windows, that have been cited at least once vs. those not cited during the following year.


What is Molecular Biology?

Molecular biology is the study of biological activities at the molecular level. It mainly concerns various interactions between the different types of biological systems like DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis. Molecular biologists use specific techniques unique to molecular biology but often combine other techniques available in genetics and biochemistry. However, the field of bioinformatics and computational biology have helped to improve the interface between molecular biology and computer science.

Molecular biologists are able to characterize and manipulate molecular components of cells and organisms using various techniques. One of the most basic techniques of molecular biology is the molecular cloning, in which DNA coding for a particular protein is cloned into a plasmid in order to study the function of the protein. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is also an important technique used for copying DNA. Other techniques include gel electrophoresis, macromolecule bottling and probing, DNA microarray and allele-specific oligonucleotide.


Current Students

  • The number of students needing to take some courses is so great, that we have to offer multiple “sections” of those courses. These sections are all equivalent in terms of the material covered in the class but differ in their meeting time/place and instructor. You only need to take ONE section for each course.
  • Sections denoted as ##N are taught face-to-face on the Natchitoches campus.
  • Sections denoted as 45N or higher are night classes (the class begins AFTER 5:00 pm and typically meet only once a week).
  • The following abbreviations are used for the days of the week:
    • M – Monday
    • T- Tuesday
    • W – Wednesday
    • R – Thursday
    • F – Friday
    • A class that meets on MWF will meet for 50 minutes, three times a week.
    • A class that meets on TR or MW will meet for 75 minutes, twice a week.
    1. Log on to myNSU (https://my.nsula.edu).
    2. Click on the NSU Connect icon (the purple icon with the white puzzle piece).
    3. Click on the “Student” link.
    4. Click on the “Student Records” link.
    5. Click on the “View Student Information” link.
    6. Select a term and then click submit. The name of your academic advisor should be listed as your “Primary Advisor”.

    Once you have identified your advisor, you can find his/her contact information here.

    If your advisor is not listed, please contact Ms. Stephanie Stanton, stantons[email protected], (318) 357-5323, or Dr. Francene J. Lemoine, [email protected], (318) 357-5805.

    Microbiology is a diverse discipline and the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) serves as the primary organization that microbiologists join. ASM has several subsections each dedicated to a particular facet of microbiology. You may find out more information about ASM by visiting their website asm.org. The Northwestern State University ASM chapter is an organization for students that have interest in Biology, specifically microbiology. The NSU chapter of ASM is a nationally recognized college chapter.

    How will joining NSU’s ASM Chapter benefit me?

    The ASM chapter at NSU has informal social events and projects that benefit the School of Biological and Physical Sciences’ students and particular those specializing in microbiology. Fundraisers are conducted with proceeds usually going to sponsor a noted figure in the field of microbiology to a guest lecture. Students in ASM have a close association with each other and foster lasting friendships with each other as well as the faculty.

    Who should join ASM?

    Students who are interested in any area of microbiology, would like to participate in projects that benefit the school/departmental student body, and would like to generate interest microbiology should consider joining ASM.

    What are ASM’s membership requirements?

    To become an ASM member, you must meet all of the following criteria:

    • be an undergraduate student majoring in Biology or minoring in microbiology
    • have taken or are enrolled in BIOL2060 (Microbiology I)
    • be a student in good academic standing at Northwestern State University

    How do you join the NSU Chapter of ASM?

    If you are interested in joining the NSU chapter of ASM or would like additional information about our organization, please email:

    Beta Beta Beta is a society for students, particularly undergraduates, who are dedicated to improving the understanding and appreciation of biological study and extending the boundaries of human knowledge through scientific research. It was founded in 1922 by Dr. Frank G. Brooks for a group of his students at Oklahoma City University. Since then, there have been more that 430 chapters established around the United States. Northwestern State University’s local chapter, the Delta Theta Chapter, was founded in 1949.

    How will joining Beta Beta Beta benefit me?

    Beta Beta Beta is a wonderful honors society that rewards students who are sincerely interested in the biological field. It provides a great environment in which you can make new friends, excel in the life sciences, collaborate with students and professors on research projects, and advance your professional career.

    Who should join Beta Beta Beta?

    Students who are dedicated to the biological field, are interested in scientific research, and want to interact with students in the same degree program should consider joining Beta Beta Beta.

    What are the Beta Beta Beta membership requirements?

    To become a Beta Beta Beta member, you must meet all of the following criteria:


    Scope & Mission

    Frontiers in Microbiology is a leading journal in its field, publishing rigorously peer-reviewed research across the entire spectrum of microbiology. Field Chief Editor Martin G. Klotz at Washington State University is supported by an outstanding Editorial Board of international researchers. This multidisciplinary open-access journal is at the forefront of disseminating and communicating scientific knowledge and impactful discoveries to researchers, academics, clinicians and the public worldwide.

    As we are taking much better account of the unseen majority of life, unravel the biogeochemical processes that microbes facilitate, thereby making planet Earth habitable for all forms of life as we increasingly identify the rules by which microorganisms interact with co-evolving viruses and macroorganisms in health and disease and as we find more and better strategies to mitigate the detrimental effects of anthropogenic activities on the abundance, diversity, distribution and activity of microbial communities, Frontiers in Microbiology will be the 21st century approach to communicate all this progress to both the specialist and a wider audience of readers in the field.

    Frontiers in Microbiology is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics.


    Degree Requirements

    Total credits: minimum 120

    Students should refer to the Admissions & Policies tab for specific policies related to this program.

    Students must complete their biology coursework and the supporting requirements which follow with a minimum GPA of 2.00.

    All students must complete the Core Courses listed below. Students then elect to complete the BS degree either with a concentration or without a concentration.

    Core Courses

    Fulfills writing intensive requirement.

    Transfer students who have transferred in BIOL 308 Foundations of Ecology and Evolution but did not meet the writing intensive requirement may take MLAB 300 Science Writing to meet the writing intensive requirement.

    Recommended by the Department of Biology.

    BS without Concentration

    Students who do not select an optional concentration must complete the biology core and shared courses shown above in addition to the curriculum requirements listed below.

    Students expecting to enter a professional school are strongly encouraged to complete MATH 113 Analytic Geometry and Calculus I (Mason Core) .

    Of which, at least 15 credits must be upper division, and at least two of the upper division courses must include a laboratory.

    Concentration in Bioinformatics (BNF)

    The highly interdisciplinary field of bioinformatics has emerged as a powerful modern science. There is a great demand for undergraduate and graduate-level trained individuals with a background in bioinformatics in industry as well as in academia.

    Students are encouraged to consult with a biology advisor to determine which option (A, B, or C) best meets their career goals.

    CHEM 314 Organic Chemistry II does not fulfill this requirement.

    Concentration in Biopsychology (BP)

    The biopsychology concentration consists of a selection of courses designed to address the needs and interest of students who wish to study biology in more depth while simultaneously exploring psychology and neurobiology. This concentration will help prepare students for the MCAT section related to psychology and provide veterinary students with a background in animal learning/behavior.

    Students are encouraged to consult with a biology faculty advisor to determine which option best meets their career goals.

    CHEM 314 Organic Chemistry II alone does not fulfill this requirement.

    Concentration in Biotechnology and Molecular Biology (BTMB)

    The biotechnology and molecular biology concentration consists of a selection of courses that provide essential skills to students who seek employment in the field or wish to include an applied component in their undergraduate training in biology.

    Registration for BIOL 417 Selected Topics in Molecular and Cellular Biology , BIOL 418 Current Topics in Microbiology , or BIOL 497 Special Problems in Biology is subject to approval by the Director of Undergraduate Studies and the Chair of the Department of Biology.

    Concentration in Environmental and Conservation Biology (ESCB)

    This concentration is offered to students seeking a biology degree that focuses on ecology and organismal biology and prepares them for graduate work or employment in environmental and conservation fields, such as natural resources management, fisheries, forestry, water quality management, aquatic and wetland ecology, and conservation biology. The concentration is staffed and supported by the Department of Environmental Science and Policy.

    Of which, two courses must be selected from the list above and must have either: 2 laboratory courses or 1 laboratory course and 1 field course (consult with an advisor for guidance).

    Students are encouraged to consult with a biology faculty advisor to determine which option best meets their career goals.

    CHEM 314 Organic Chemistry II alone does not fulfill this requirement.

    Registration in BIOL 497 Special Problems in Biology is subject to approval by the Director of Undergraduate Studies and the Chairman of the Department of Biology.

    Concentration in Microbiology (MIB)

    This concentration offers lecture and laboratory courses in microbiology to prepare students for employment or advanced study in microbial genetics, physiology, diversity, and related fields.

    Mason Core and Elective Credits

    In order to meet a minimum of 120 credits, this degree requires additional credits (specific credit counts by concentration are shown below), which may be applied toward any remaining Mason Core requirements (outlined below), Requirements for Bachelor's Degrees, and electives. Students are strongly encouraged to consult with their advisors to ensure that they fulfill all requirements.

    • Without concentration: 38-46 credits
    • BNF concentration: 36-46 credits
    • BP concentration: 39-46 credits
    • BTMB concentration: 41-44 credits
    • ESCB concentration: 38-46 credits
    • MIB concentration: 41-44 credits

    Mason Core

    Some Mason Core requirements may already be fulfilled by the major requirements listed above. Students are strongly encouraged to consult their advisors to ensure they fulfill all remaining Mason Core requirements.

    Course List
    Code Title Credits
    Foundation Requirements
    Written Communication (ENGH 101) 3
    Oral Communication 3
    Quantitative Reasoning 3
    Information Technology and Computing 3
    Exploration Requirements
    Arts 3
    Global Understanding 3
    Literature 3
    Natural Science 7
    Social and Behavioral Sciences 3
    Western Civilization/World History 3
    Integration Requirements
    Written Communications (ENGH 302) 3
    Writing-Intensive 1 3
    Synthesis/Capstone 2 3
    Total Credits40

    Most programs include the writing-intensive course designated for the major as part of the major requirements this course is therefore not counted towards the total required for Mason Core.

    Minimum 3 credits required.


    Current Students

    • The number of students needing to take some courses is so great, that we have to offer multiple “sections” of those courses. These sections are all equivalent in terms of the material covered in the class but differ in their meeting time/place and instructor. You only need to take ONE section for each course.
    • Sections denoted as ##N are taught face-to-face on the Natchitoches campus.
    • Sections denoted as 45N or higher are night classes (the class begins AFTER 5:00 pm and typically meet only once a week).
    • The following abbreviations are used for the days of the week:
      • M – Monday
      • T- Tuesday
      • W – Wednesday
      • R – Thursday
      • F – Friday
      • A class that meets on MWF will meet for 50 minutes, three times a week.
      • A class that meets on TR or MW will meet for 75 minutes, twice a week.
      1. Log on to myNSU (https://my.nsula.edu).
      2. Click on the NSU Connect icon (the purple icon with the white puzzle piece).
      3. Click on the “Student” link.
      4. Click on the “Student Records” link.
      5. Click on the “View Student Information” link.
      6. Select a term and then click submit. The name of your academic advisor should be listed as your “Primary Advisor”.

      Once you have identified your advisor, you can find his/her contact information here.

      If your advisor is not listed, please contact Ms. Stephanie Stanton, [email protected], (318) 357-5323, or Dr. Francene J. Lemoine, [email protected], (318) 357-5805.

      Microbiology is a diverse discipline and the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) serves as the primary organization that microbiologists join. ASM has several subsections each dedicated to a particular facet of microbiology. You may find out more information about ASM by visiting their website asm.org. The Northwestern State University ASM chapter is an organization for students that have interest in Biology, specifically microbiology. The NSU chapter of ASM is a nationally recognized college chapter.

      How will joining NSU’s ASM Chapter benefit me?

      The ASM chapter at NSU has informal social events and projects that benefit the School of Biological and Physical Sciences’ students and particular those specializing in microbiology. Fundraisers are conducted with proceeds usually going to sponsor a noted figure in the field of microbiology to a guest lecture. Students in ASM have a close association with each other and foster lasting friendships with each other as well as the faculty.

      Who should join ASM?

      Students who are interested in any area of microbiology, would like to participate in projects that benefit the school/departmental student body, and would like to generate interest microbiology should consider joining ASM.

      What are ASM’s membership requirements?

      To become an ASM member, you must meet all of the following criteria:

      • be an undergraduate student majoring in Biology or minoring in microbiology
      • have taken or are enrolled in BIOL2060 (Microbiology I)
      • be a student in good academic standing at Northwestern State University

      How do you join the NSU Chapter of ASM?

      If you are interested in joining the NSU chapter of ASM or would like additional information about our organization, please email:

      Beta Beta Beta is a society for students, particularly undergraduates, who are dedicated to improving the understanding and appreciation of biological study and extending the boundaries of human knowledge through scientific research. It was founded in 1922 by Dr. Frank G. Brooks for a group of his students at Oklahoma City University. Since then, there have been more that 430 chapters established around the United States. Northwestern State University’s local chapter, the Delta Theta Chapter, was founded in 1949.

      How will joining Beta Beta Beta benefit me?

      Beta Beta Beta is a wonderful honors society that rewards students who are sincerely interested in the biological field. It provides a great environment in which you can make new friends, excel in the life sciences, collaborate with students and professors on research projects, and advance your professional career.

      Who should join Beta Beta Beta?

      Students who are dedicated to the biological field, are interested in scientific research, and want to interact with students in the same degree program should consider joining Beta Beta Beta.

      What are the Beta Beta Beta membership requirements?

      To become a Beta Beta Beta member, you must meet all of the following criteria:


      Watch the video: Lecture # 2: Branches of Applied Microbiology (July 2022).


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