Section: 20 - Biology

Section: 20 - Biology

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Section: 20


NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL, et al. Molecular Cell Biology. 4th edition. New York: W. H. Freeman 2000.

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Section 20

Section 20 Notice templates - free to download

What is a Section 20 Notice?

A Section 20 Notice is a document that must be served to all leaseholders when carrying out qualifying works to a residential freehold property. Such works can include repairs or maintenance to any building containing flats, and long-term contracts for providing these services. However, in order for these works to qualify for Section 20 Notices to be served, the financial contribution from any one leaseholder must exceed £250. As such, this type of maintenance or repair work would be defined as ‘major works’ and will therefore require the Section 20 Consultation process to be followed.

The formal Section 20 Consultation procedure is prescribed by the Landlord and Tenant Act 1985 (as amended by the Commonhold and Leasehold Reform Act 2002). It consists of three stages, each requiring a different Section 20 Notice to be served to leaseholders. The aim of the Section 20 Consultation process is to provide leaseholders with an opportunity to decide how their money is spent. Freeholders on the other hand, will gain reassurance that they can recover the cost of these major works to their freehold property.

How do I get a Section 20 Notice template?

To obtain a free, Section 20 Notice template, simply complete the required information in the contact form on this page. You will then instantly receive an email containing three, downloadable templates for each stage of the Section 20 consultation process.

How do I prepare a Section 20 Notice?

There are three Section 20 Notices for each of the three stages in the consultation procedure. Of which, the first two are compulsory and therefore must be served to leaseholders. The third notice should only be served when the selected contractor was not nominated by the leaseholders, or if the chosen contractor is not the cheapest. Each Notice contains different information and allows leaseholders a set amount of time to respond with their comments. If freeholders fail to follow this formal process as dictated by Landlord and Tenant Law, they may not be able to collect funds to cover the entire cost of the major works. It is therefore critical to follow the three-stage Section 20 consultation process outlined below.

Under Section 20 of the Children Act 1989, the Local Authority has a duty to provide a child with somewhere to live if the child doesn't have a home or a home which is deemed unsafe. This duty can arise from various reasons, for example, the child has been lost or abandoned.

If the Local Authority asks the parents to sign a Section 20, this will mean that the parents are agreeing for their child to live elsewhere for a period of time. Often, this is in foster care. During this time, the Local Authority can do the following:

    Conduct further assessments and investigations to decide if they need to issue an application to the Court

The above isn’t an exhaustive list, as the action the Local Authority decides to take will depend on the circumstances of each individual case. It’s important to note that a Section 20 Agreement is not a Court Order, and there is no involvement from the Courts at this stage.

Additionally, signing a Section 20 Agreement doesn’t give the Local Authority Parental Responsibility over the child.

Do I Have to Agree to a Section 20?

No. The purpose of a Section 20 Agreement is that it’s supposed to be just that – an agreement.

You’re entitled to obtain legal advice before entering into a Section 20 to be sure you fully understand the terms and implications. The Local Authority should be able to provide you with a list of local Solicitors that deal with this area of law.

It’s important that you fully understand the implications of the Section 20 Agreement and what the agreement says. For example, if the agreement will be for a specified time period, if there any investigations to be undertaken, or if there will be a pre-proceedings meeting. Parents must have received all of the relevant information before agreeing to sign a section 20 Agreement.

You should be given written confirmation of the agreement, which you’ll be expected to sign. You may also be asked to sign a "Contract of Expectations", which sets out what is expected of both you and the Local Authority during this time. You should again be given time to obtain legal advice before signing this.

What Happens if I Don’t Agree?

If you don’t agree and the Local Authority doesn’t want your child to remain at home with you, then they may decide to take the following action:

    Ask the police to make a Police Protection Order which allows them to accommodate the child for up to 72 hours

The Local Authority may also look at other options with you, such as whether there are any family members who the child could reside with.

Can I Withdraw My Consent and How?

Under Section 20(8) of the Children Act 1989, a person with Parental Responsibility can withdraw their consent at any time. Parents therefore should be informed that they’re able to do this by the Local Authority. You can withdraw your consent verbally, but it’s better to do this in writing.

If the Local Authority doesn’t want you to return the child to their home, then as above, they may seek a Police Protection Order or alternatively make an application to Court and commence Care Proceedings.

If the Local Authority ignores your attempts to withdraw your consent, or you weren’t informed of your right to withdraw consent to the s.20 agreement, it’s important that you obtain legal advice as soon as possible. The Courts have recently been critical of the Local Authority ignoring requests from parents to withdraw their consent and therefore it’s essential that legal advice is obtained.

What Should I Do Next?

If Social Services are involved with your children and have discussed the possibility of a Section 20 Agreement with you, it’s important to discuss this with a Child Protection Solicitor as soon as you can. If instructed, our Solicitors can liaise with Local Authorities and/or other parties on your behalf.

If you're unsure about any part of the Section 20 agreement, our Child Protection Solicitors can help you.


- A lichen is a symbiotic relationship between a fungus (usually ascomycotes) and a photosynthetic green algae or cyanobacterium.

- The fungus portion of the lichen forms a dense web of hyphae in which the algae or cyanobacteria grow.

- Together they form a structure that looks like a single organism.

- Lichens need only light, air, and nutrients to grow. Food is provided by the photosynthetic organism.

- The fungus provides minerals and water.

- Approximately, 20,000 species of lichens. Range in size from 1mm to several meters in diameter. Grow between 0.1 mm and 10 mm per year. Some are thousands of years old.

- Found worldwide and are the first to colonize an area.

- They also absorb pollution from the air. If pollution is present, the fungus dies. Without the fungal part of the lichen, the photosynthetic partner also dies.

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Section 20 is the founding document of the restored Church of Jesus Christ.

Joseph’s history says it came “by the Spirit of Prophecy and revelation.”[1] Joseph read it and the saints unanimously received it at the Church’s first quarterly conference in June 1830.[2]

It is a constitution of sorts and quite unique. It is not in the voice of the Lord or an angel, as most of the sections are. Rather, it is in the voice of the Latter-day Saints, a sort of “we the people” or, at least, “we the elders of the church” (D&C 20:16).

Section 20 does three things. Its first 16 verses justify the Church’s existence by highlighting the backstory of how it came to be established on April 6, 1830: the calling and commissioning of apostles to lead it, the coming forth of the Book of Mormon, and the collective witness of the elders.

The passage in verses 17–36 declares what we know. These are articles of faith: “There is a God in heaven,” this part begins, and then summarizes the plan of redemption. God created. Mankind fell. “The Almighty God gave his Only Begotten Son. He was crucified, died, and rose again” so that everyone who ever lived or lives can have eternal life on conditions of enduring in faith and repentance. This section briefly situates the restored gospel relative to other theologies. Saints share with many Christians, for example, the truth that sanctification comes through the grace of Jesus Christ, but not the agency-compromising idea that a sanctified person can never fall from grace. Anyone can opt out of God’s grace, and the revelation warns the Church about that.

The third and longest passage begins in verse 37. It sets the qualifications for baptism, instructs how to administer the sacrament, relates the duties of priesthood holders and other members, and tells of the need for membership records.

Oliver Cowdery did not initially like verse 37’s detailed qualifications for baptism. He had prepared an earlier draft that specified only “whosoever repenteth & humbleth himself before me & desireth to be baptized in my name shall ye baptize them.”[3] By comparison, verse 37 adds the requirements of a broken heart and contrite spirit, evidence of true repentance and willingness to assume the name of Jesus Christ with determination to serve him to the end, and a godly life (compare Moroni 6:1–4).

Oliver demanded “in the name of God” that Joseph delete the requirement that baptismal candidates should “manifest by their works that they have received the Spirit of Christ unto the remission of their sins.” Joseph asked Oliver “by what authority he took upon him to command me to add or diminish to or from a revelation or commandment from the Almighty God.” [4] Joseph finally convinced Oliver, who read section 20 to the Church’s second conference in September 1830.[5]

There are two things section 20 does not do. Verse 1 does not establish once and for all the date of the Savior’s birth. Verse 1 is best understood as a headnote saying that the Church was organized on April 6 in 1830. It should not be understood to establish that date as precisely 1,830 years since Jesus was born. Joseph’s history says that the Lord “pointed out to us the precise day” to organize his Church.[6] It does not specify that it was Jesus’s birthday, nor does verse 1 say it was. Rather, it has been interpreted to mean that it was.

Section 20 does not do all the work of establishing the Church’s authority, core doctrines, and practical organization and procedures. This revelation was amended frequently, as more became known. It is a beginning, not the sum total, of the restored Church of Jesus Christ.

[2] “Minutes, 9 June 1830,” p. 1, The Joseph Smith Papers, accessed September 23, 2020.

[3] Oliver Cowdery, “Articles of the Church of Christ,” Church History Library, Salt Lake City.

[4] “History, circa June–October 1839 [Draft 1],” p. [23], The Joseph Smith Papers, accessed July 23, 2020.

[5] “Minute Book 2,” p. 2, The Joseph Smith Papers, accessed July 23, 2020.

Section 20: leaseholders’ rights


The Leasehold Knowledge Partnership is contacted multiple times every week about Section 20 major works issues.

These calls come from some of the fanciest apartment blocks in London, from retirement sites and from local authority leaseholders. Often out of the blue, the landlord has decided to begin major works at the block and suddenly a leaseholder is looking at a bill of £5,000, £10,000, £20,000 or £30,000. It is not rare for the figure to be higher than this.

Indeed, today (August 2019) we are trying to help some Southwark leaseholders facing Section 20 demands of £146,000 for a site that the council has decided needs drastic repairs or demolition.

Many of the worst case Section 20s concern private leasehold properties in local authority blocks, where the council is the landlord. These blocks do not have reserve funds, and councils’ primary responsibility is to house the unhoused: the council tenants. Not those who have exercised right to buy, and still less investors who may have bought these properties off the original Right To Buy owners.

Many calls come from young professionals in London who have bought flats in council blocks because they are affordable. The upside of such a purchase is that the flat was cheaper than a private one the downside is that a council in the landlord and they have an abysmal reputation for controlling costs. An additional issue is that councils are suspected by some leaseholders to consider the private leaseholders as a cash cow, who can help subsidise the council’s housing stock. The evidence of this pretty dubious, although Section 20s from local councils have been successfully challenged.

The amounts of money involved can be devastating: Oxford City Council wanted to charge 50 leaseholders £50,000 each when it refurbished some tower blocks. It lost the subsequent court battle. Southwark has issued a recent demand for £146,000 off leaseholders at a block in south London. These sums will obviously wipe the leaseholders out.

Indeed, Southwark has one office in its housing department that deals with Right-to-Buy and another to buy back the properties once the leaseholder is hit by a Section 20 and cannot afford to pay it.

Leaseholders contest Section 20s by challenging the process – it must be carried out correctly – and / or by challenging the quantum of costs for the works. Both are likely to require solicitors and / or a surveyor. So the first step for leaseholders, whether council or private, is to mobilise and unite.

No court is going to pay attention to a lay person’s opinion on the costs of building works, but they will pay attention to a surveyor employed via the leaseholders’ solicitor.

All leaseholders facing a Section 20, after having formed a group, should contact the Leasehold Knowledge Partnership and we will put you in touch with professionals with a track record of successfully fighting these costs.

Are Section 20s abused? Certainly. Oxford City Council was trying to subsidise the refurbishment of its housing stock by dumping the bills on its leaseholders.

With private landlords, too, there is plenty of gamesmanship over Section 20s. One way you can monetise a site where you own the freehold is to carrying out repeated works, handing the contract to a related company or chum, taking a cut, charging a management fee to supervise these works and getting the leaseholders to pay up. Obviously, the bigger the bills the more remunerative this process can be.

Sometimes a Section 20 is the last chance rip-off of a game-playing landlord. We are aware of landlords who repeatedly issue Section 20s when a site is about to go right to manage. It is their last chance to squeeze out some more cash.

Apart from employing professionals to challenge the Section 20 process and the quantum of costs, another point to consider is that if you have recently purchased the property then the immense of major works should have been questioned by your solicitor or declared. If your solicitor failed to make inquiries then a professional negligence action against his insurers might be possible, and if it was not declared there is a possibility that the bill does not have to be paid. We are aware of a young couple in Southwark who escaped a £23,000 bill precisely on these grounds.

As ever, the absolutely disastrous course of action by leaseholders facing a Section 20 bill is to get emotional and decline to pay it. There are still an alarming number of leaseholders who stage this sort of car crash in the courts: they lose the case and have to pay legal costs that may dwarf the Section 20 bill.

Fighting Section 20s is almost always beyond the ability of lay applicants to attempt, and it is best left to professionals – ideally paid for by a group of affected leaseholders.

As ever, the hard and fast rule of LKP applies, unless you are legally represented by professionals who know what they are doing, laymen fighting this should PAY FIRST, FIGHT SECOND. That means you are not wrongly withholding service charges if you are unsuccessful in the tribunal.

The form asking for dispensation from Section 20 costs:


1/ What are major works?

The term major works, or “qualifying works” which is the term used in the Act, means works (whether on a building or any other premises) the cost of which is recoverable from the tenant under the terms of the lease through the service charge.

The cost will not be paid from the annual service charge, but is normally an additional charge on top of this. If there is a “reserve fund” or “sinking fund” built up this can be used to pay some or all of the cost, depending on the cost of the work and the amount built up.
The lease should state when the major works charge can be made, it may have to coincide with the annual service charge, or the lease may allow it to be charged on demand when necessary. Most modern leases allow for payment in advance.

The major works will usually be the responsibility of the landlord, but it could also be the Right to Manage Company, or Residents Management Company, if one of these is in place.

2/ What are the requirements to consult under Section 20?

If the cost of major works will exceed the sum of £250 for any one leaseholder, then the landlord is required to consult with tenants under section 20.

The requirement may be for full consultation where the tenant will be able to make “observations” on the proposed works and also nominate a contractor for the landlord to obtain an estimate. Alternatively, it may be the abridged version of consultation where there is only one stage of consultation for observations to be made, but the tenant does not have the right to nominate a contractor.

The abridged version applies where the landlord has a “Qualifying Long Term Agreement” in place. This means a contract for services with a contractor of more than 12 months. There is a separate consultation requirement before the landlord enters into such a long term contract. Most housing associations or local authority landlords will have such an agreement in place.

The consultation process also involves the landlord describing the works, although a full specification does not have to be given. The landlord should also “have regard” to any observations made and reply as appropriate.

Please see the advice guide on Section 20 consultation for further details

3/ Dispensation from the need to consult

A landlord may apply to the First-tier Tribunal (Property Chamber) (FTT) for a dispensation from the need to consult. They may wish to do this if the work is urgent and it is not possible to wait the 2 months that consultation can take. They may also seek a dispensation if, for some reason, they have failed to consult fully under the Act.

An application can be made prior to the work being carried out, or even sometimes retrospectively. The most relevant recent case on an application for dispensation was Daejan V Benson in 2013 made in the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court gave some clear guidelines as to the matters that should be taken into account by a tribunal when deciding whether to grant a dispensation.

This article is another legal analysis of Daejan v Benson: S20 dispensation granted to freeholders, which provides more information on the effect of this decision.

4/ Payment

Many leaseholders faced with a large major works bill will struggle to find the funds. Most social landlords will offer some form of payment plan, for example instalment payments over a number of years (not more than two, in the experience of LKP). They also have power to waive or reduce charges for major works under statutory regulation. Discretionary reduction of major works service charges for leaseholders of social landlords

An Upper Tribunal decision in 2011 determined that when considering the reasonableness of charges for major works, whether the landlord had considered the financial impact on tenants before commencing the works can be taken into account. An example would be, whether the work could be done in stages, to reduce the financial impact.

LKP is unaware of any amelioration of Section 20 major works bills as a result of this.

Section 20 is a lethal weapon in the hands of a monetising landlord, and a blunderbuss in the hands of local authorities, who have a well deserved appalling reputation in cost control.

5/ Fighting back

A landlord’s power to levy a service charge and a leaseholder’s obligation to pay it are governed by the provisions of the lease. The lease is a contract and so there is no obligation to pay anything other than what is provided for in the lease.

Both landlords and leaseholders have the right to ask a First-tier Tribunal (Property Chamber) whether a charge, or a proposed charge, is reasonably incurred.

When Grenfell cladding was found on private blocks of flats, landlords rushed off to the tribunal to ensure that leaseholders rather than themselves paid to remove it (and pay for the fire marshals).

An application may be made to the Tribunal whether or not the charge has already been paid. It can be in respect of costs already incurred for works, services or other charges, or in respect of an estimate or budget.

The Tribunal may also determine:

  • whether the service charge is payable under the lease
  • by whom and to whom it is payable
  • the date on which it may be payable and
  • the manner of payment (for example, if it may be paid by direct debit or standing order).

If you are fighting a Section 20, you are going to need a strategy to fight it and professional help.

Section 20 Settlement Versus Order Approving Settlement

Every New Jersey workers’ compensation practitioner must evaluate the benefits of a Section 20, (which is a lump sum full and final payment), versus an order approving settlement, (which involves an award of a percentage of disability under Section 22). About twice as many cases settle under orders approving settlement in New Jersey than under Section 20 settlements.

Here are the main features of a Section 20:

  • A lump sum payment — not weekly payments over time
  • No admission of liability by the employer
  • Not a workers’ compensation payment except for insurance rating purposes
  • The petitioner cannot reopen the case in the future
  • The petitioner and respondent must agree to the Section 20, and the Judge must also approve the settlement. If any party rejects the Section 20, this option is out
  • There must be a genuine issue of causation, liability, jurisdiction or dependency otherwise, there is no possibility to close the file under a Section 20

Here are the main features of a Section 22 order approving settlement:

  • The employee receives a percentage of disability, such as 20% of the arm
  • The employee can apply to modify the award within two years of the last payment of benefits and seek additional medical, temporary or permanent disability benefits
  • The employer accepts a specific medical condition or conditions, such as a torn rotator cuff or herniated cervical disc
  • If there is a reinjury to that body part in the future resulting in an increase in disability, the employer gets a credit for the percentage paid

Employers generally prefer Section 20 settlements because they close the particular file at issue for good. However, Section 20 settlements are not obtainable where the accident is admitted and there is permanent disability resulting from the accident. Carriers and third party administrators often as the following question:

If the employee has returned to work, does a Section 20 settlement make sense?

This is a complicated issue with many considerations, but the answer is that most of the time, it makes more sense to do a Section 20 even if the employee has returned to work rather than admit the specific medical condition and deal with reopener rights.

There are two main objection that are raised to the notion of effecting a Section 20 on someone who has returned to work:

  1. What if the employee gets injured in the future?
  2. Can the employer still get a credit if there is a future injury to the same body part and the case has already been resolved on a Section 20?

Let’s deal with question one first: can’t the employee get reinjured in the future injury? Yes, but this is not really a valid consideration. Assume the employee has a herniated disc and has returned to work. There is an issue of causation or liability which raises the potential for a Section 20. The employer has two choices: pay the case under Section 22 for perhaps 22.5% permanent partial disability and accept that the herniated disc is compensable, or, pay a lump sum on a Section 20 admitting nothing. Whichever option the employer chooses, the employee may have a future injury. There is no way to predict that or stop that. So when it comes to the potential for reinjury given that the employee is back to work at the time of settlement, it makes no difference whether the settlement was done under Section 20 or Section 22. The manner of settlement will not prevent a future injury.

Question two is more complex and raises legitimate considerations: namely, will the employer get a credit for the prior payment if the prior payment was a Section 20 and not a percentage of disability? There is no question that it is simpler to get a credit for a prior payment under Section 22. If the employer settles the case for 22.5%, and the employee reinjures his back in three years, raising the disability percentage to 32.5%, the employer will get a credit for 22.5%. So isn’t this the better way? No, not really, because there are two ways of getting a credit in New Jersey: one is for a prior payment or an award by subtracting the percentage paid, and the other is under the Abdullah case and N.J.S.A. 34:15-12(d), both of which permit employers to get credits for previous established disability even if there is no prior percentage award.

So how does an employer get a credit where the prior settlement was under Section 20 and the employee had a herniated disc at that time? In the event of a new injury to the low back at some future date, the employer will send the prior medical records to the examining doctor, who will be asked to apportion the disability between that which existed before the new accident and that which exists after the new accident. Sometimes this is not even necessary, as the parties can often negotiate the credit in court.

Skilled practitioners are aware that often it is very costly for an employer to have settled a case under an order approving settlement with a percentage of disability when the employer had a chance to do a Section 20 — particularly when the employee remained at work following the initial settlement. The following scenarios illustrates this point:


Let’s assume the employer chooses not to do a Section 20 on herniated disc back case and settles for 25% permanent partial disability at 2014 rates because the employer is worried about the fact that the employee has returned to work. The settlement at 25% cost the employer $38,340. The employer is thinking about future credits and decides to go for 25% rather than do a Section 20. Three years from now the employee reinjures his back and now the judge feels that the new percentage of disability is 10% more or 35%. While that is only a 10% increase, the problem is that rates rise after 180 weeks. That pushes the settlement of 35% to $82,530 with the credit for 25% being merely $38,430. That 10% increase cost the employer $44,100.

Now consider if the employer settled the original case on a Section 20 for $40,000. It paid a about $1,600 more to get the Section 20 on the 2014 case.


Assume there was an issue of causation or liability and all parties agreed on the Section 20 settlement in 2014 for $40,000. The employee remained at work and a reinjury occurs in 2017 to the low back. Remember, under the Section 20 there was no award percentage on the record — and that is a very good thing. The parties agree that the petitioner’s back is 10% worse than it was in 2014. But because there was no prior percentage award, it is harder for the petitioner’s attorney to argue that the new award should be 35%. The employer has a much better chance of negotiating a lower credit (which benefits the employer) precisely because there was no set percentage established in 2014. The employer’s strategy is to settle the case for 30% credit 20%, which is $49,554 credit $28,992. That is $20,562, or about $24,000 less than the scenario in which the employer paid under an order approving settlement!

In this situation, the employer saved over $22,000. It paid slightly more for the original settlement but saved $24,000 when the reinjury occurred. Why did this happen? Because the Section 20 gave the employer’s lawyer more flexibility in negotiations on the credit. The lower the credit percentage, the better for the employer in this situation.

The lesson is that the employer is almost always better off with a Section 20 over an order approving settlement with a percentage of disability, particularly on significant cases. To recap, the main advantages of the Section 20 over Section 22 are clear, even if the employee is back to work doing the same job for the employer:

  • The employer has not admitted liability for the condition at issue
  • The employer can still get a credit in the event of a future reinjury
  • The old case is closed forever and that case cannot be reopened
  • The employer has more flexibility in the future to argue for a lower credit, which is a critical advantage to employers

Having said all that, there is one last wrinkle in this analysis. If the employee wants a huge premium for the Section 20 over the Section 22 settlement, that may not make sense for the employer. In the example above, the order approving settlement at 25% cost the employer $38,430, and the Section 20 was only about $1,600 more to obtain at $40,000. But if the employee wanted an additional $15,000 for the Section 20, that would negate the benefit for the employer. So the amount of the premium that the employer pays to get a Section 20 is an important factor in this calculus.

Learning Experience

Ground-breaking Curriculum

The BJU Biology Department has been a pioneer in developing innovative curriculum since the mid-1960s when we first created General Biology as the entry course to replace the then standard starting point of Zoology or Botany. We saw in the 1960s the need to develop a course that integrated all of biology into clearly articulated foundational ideas at the cellular level.

As biology has grown, our curriculum has kept pace. By the early 1980s the complexity of biological concepts required the creation of General Biology II. General Biology I and II are now the standard for biological science majors in most universities. More recently increasing understanding of life at the cellular and molecular levels has caused a revolution in biological thought and produced what has been called the &ldquoNew Biology.&rdquo

We responded in 1986 with the creation of a senior-level course, Bio 506 Cell and Molecular Biology. As the new biology shattered old paradigms, it necessitated an expansion of the conceptual base down to the freshman and sophomore years. We responded by creating a required sophomore-level course, Essentials of Cell Biology, in 1999. General Biology I and II and Essentials of Cell Biology now constitute the core curriculum of the biology and premed/predent majors.


The BJU biology faculty is truly unique. Each holds a PhD in a specialized area of biology, brings a unique set of research experiences to the classroom, and is committed to a biblical philosophy of science, including a firm belief in a recent six-day creation.

Out from this flows a commitment to excellence in teaching, and the desire to train students to serve Christ wherever He places them. Each biology faculty member is committed to developing your God-given abilities in the classroom as well as in the laboratory and the field.

Our faculty are passionate about teaching, and they hone their teaching skills and their courses in our Summer Institute in Teaching Science each summer.

Deep and (eventually) Wide

General Biology I and II courses offered by most universities are a rapid survey of all of biology in a manner that has been characterized as &ldquoa mile wide and an inch deep.&rdquo

Dr. Bruce Alberts, past president of the National Academy of Sciences, lamented this problem in 1998: &ldquoFar too many of our introductory courses are tedious surveys of an entire field&mdashas if, for example, one could hope to gain any real understanding of all of biology in a single year.&rdquo

His solution was that students needed to &ldquo[gain] a detailed understanding of the inner workings of the cell&rsquos many marvelous protein machines.&rdquo

Our core curriculum is specifically designed to produce in students an understanding of biology at the foundational molecular level. We are not content with mere factual recall. Our students learn at a depth that allows them to apply their understanding to solving real-world science problems. Only after this deep understanding of the conceptual foundation of biology is achieved do students broaden their understanding to include the immense diversity of the biological world.

Solid Science

Ultimately biology is something students do. It is a way of thinking that they exercise in asking scientific questions in an experimental context. Once again, our curriculum leads the way. During their very first semester in General Biology I, students learn how to design and conduct experiments. They do several small experimental studies and ultimately a semester project in which the findings are presented in written form as well as orally to the rest of the class, followed by a question and answer time.

General Biology II continues this pattern at an even higher level and Essentials of Cell Biology lab consists almost entirely of experimental modules. During their sophomore year, students take a course in Research Methods and Analysis, and nearly every biology course above that level includes a three-hour lab focused on experimentation. During both semesters of their senior year, biology majors in the Cell Biology track conduct independent research under the supervision of our full-time research director. This opportunity is also available to premed/predent majors.

The research director orchestrates an expansive program of undergraduate research, which includes opportunities in cancer research in a new lab suite constructed expressly for this purpose. A summer-long research program in biology is also available.

Cancer Research Lab

A summer Research Immersion for Undergraduates (RIU) program is offered for students, allowing them unparalleled opportunity to improve their skills as researchers while still undergraduates. As part of the research team, you&rsquoll collaborate on experiments, testing the anticancer properties of a variety of substances on three types of cancer cells. In addition, you&rsquoll get experience in writing and applying for research grants.


BJU&rsquos serpentarium is home to more than 150 reptiles. Students work with our resident herpetologist to get hands-on experience in research with these animals and make contributions to the scientific community.

Cadaver Lab

BJU&rsquos advanced cadaver lab&mdashtaught by an experienced medical doctor&mdashsets its biology program apart from many undergraduate programs. The cadaver lab provides an extensive, three-dimensional view of the human body and equips you with first-hand knowledge that prepares you for your field.

Our students come to grips with anatomy and physiology in a Christian context so they can grow in their faith in and appreciation of the Creator, and prepare for the stringent academic expectations of biology and graduate schools.

Watch the video: Biology in Focus Chapter 20: Phylogeny (July 2022).


  1. Nassor

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  2. Torrence

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