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1.4.5.14: The Branches of Biology - Biology

1.4.5.14: The Branches of Biology - Biology



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Learning Outcomes

  • Identify the main branches of biology

The scope of biology is broad and therefore contains many branches and sub-disciplines. It is quite a broad branch itself, and depending on the subject of study, there are also microbial physiologists, ecologists, and geneticists, among others.

Forensic Science

Forensic science is the application of science to answer questions related to the law. Biologists as well as chemists and biochemists can be forensic scientists. Forensic scientists provide scientific evidence for use in courts, and their job involves examining trace materials associated with crimes. Interest in forensic science has increased in the last few years, possibly because of popular television shows that feature forensic scientists on the job. Also, the development of molecular techniques and the establishment of DNA databases have expanded the types of work that forensic scientists can do.

Their job activities are primarily related to crimes against people such as murder, rape, and assault. Their work involves analyzing samples such as hair, blood, and other body fluids and also processing DNA (Figure 1) found in many different environments and materials.

Forensic scientists also analyze other biological evidence left at crime scenes, such as insect larvae or pollen grains. Students who want to pursue careers in forensic science will most likely be required to take chemistry and biology courses as well as some intensive math courses.

Another field of biological study, neurobiology, studies the biology of the nervous system, and although it is considered a branch of biology, it is also recognized as an interdisciplinary field of study known as neuroscience. Because of its interdisciplinary nature, this sub-discipline studies different functions of the nervous system using molecular, cellular, developmental, medical, and computational approaches.

Paleontology, another branch of biology, uses fossils to study life’s history (Figure 2). Zoology and botany are the study of animals and plants, respectively. Biologists can also specialize as biotechnologists, ecologists, or physiologists, to name just a few areas. Biotechnologists apply the knowledge of biology to create useful products. Ecologists study the interactions of organisms in their environments. Physiologists study the workings of cells, tissues and organs. This is just a small sample of the many fields that biologists can pursue. From our own bodies to the world we live in, discoveries in biology can affect us in very direct and important ways. We depend on these discoveries for our health, our food sources, and the benefits provided by our ecosystem. Because of this, knowledge of biology can benefit us in making decisions in our day-to-day lives.

The development of technology in the twentieth century that continues today, particularly the technology to describe and manipulate the genetic material, DNA, has transformed biology. This transformation will allow biologists to continue to understand the history of life in greater detail, how the human body works, our human origins, and how humans can survive as a species on this planet despite the stresses caused by our increasing numbers. Biologists continue to decipher huge mysteries about life suggesting that we have only begun to understand life on the planet, its history, and our relationship to it. For this and other reasons, the knowledge of biology gained through this textbook and other printed and electronic media should be a benefit in whichever field you enter.


People want to know what are the branches of biology. Their answer is simple,broadly branches of the biology is classified into three categories their name is zoology botany and microbiology out of these three categories there is a several other branches of biology which we should know it. Other branches is like biochemistry, biophysics, MolecularBiology,Genetics,Marinebiology ,biotechnology ,genetics ,Pathology ,ecology , cytology, taxonomy and other branches also. So in this article we know about complete list of branches of biology and their definition one by one.

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Complete list of branches of biology and their definition


1.4.5.14: The Branches of Biology - Biology

The scope of biology is broad and therefore contains many branches and sub-disciplines. Biologists may pursue one of those sub-disciplines and work in a more focused field. For instance, molecular biology and biochemistry study biological processes at the molecular and chemical level, including interactions among molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins, as well as the way they are regulated. Microbiology, the study of microorganisms, is the study of the structure and function of single-celled organisms. It is quite a broad branch itself, and depending on the subject of study, there are also microbial physiologists, ecologists, and geneticists, among others.

Forensic Science

Figure 1. This forensic scientist works in a DNA extraction room at the U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Laboratory at Fort Gillem, GA. (credit: United States Army CID Command Public Affairs)

Forensic science is the application of science to answer questions related to the law. Biologists as well as chemists and biochemists can be forensic scientists. Forensic scientists provide scientific evidence for use in courts, and their job involves examining trace materials associated with crimes. Interest in forensic science has increased in the last few years, possibly because of popular television shows that feature forensic scientists on the job. Also, the development of molecular techniques and the establishment of DNA databases have expanded the types of work that forensic scientists can do.

Their job activities are primarily related to crimes against people such as murder, rape, and assault. Their work involves analyzing samples such as hair, blood, and other body fluids and also processing DNA (Figure 1) found in many different environments and materials.

Forensic scientists also analyze other biological evidence left at crime scenes, such as insect larvae or pollen grains. Students who want to pursue careers in forensic science will most likely be required to take chemistry and biology courses as well as some intensive math courses.

Another field of biological study, neurobiology, studies the biology of the nervous system, and although it is considered a branch of biology, it is also recognized as an interdisciplinary field of study known as neuroscience. Because of its interdisciplinary nature, this sub-discipline studies different functions of the nervous system using molecular, cellular, developmental, medical, and computational approaches.

Figure 2. Researchers work on excavating dinosaur fossils at a site in Castellón, Spain. (credit: Mario Modesto)

Paleontology, another branch of biology, uses fossils to study life’s history (Figure 2). Zoology and botany are the study of animals and plants, respectively. Biologists can also specialize as biotechnologists, ecologists, or physiologists, to name just a few areas. This is just a small sample of the many fields that biologists can pursue.

Biology is the culmination of the achievements of the natural sciences from their inception to today. Excitingly, it is the cradle of emerging sciences, such as the biology of brain activity, genetic engineering of custom organisms, and the biology of evolution that uses the laboratory tools of molecular biology to retrace the earliest stages of life on earth. A scan of news headlines—whether reporting on immunizations, a newly discovered species, sports doping, or a genetically modified food—demonstrates the way biology is active in and important to our everyday world.


Main branches of biology

Pathogenic bacterial cells are seen by microscope in the host organism

1- Morphology: ( /mɔːˈfɒlədʒi/) This branch deals with the study of form, size, shape, and structure of living organisms. e.g. skin color, height, the shape of limbs, etc.

2- Anatomy (/ə-NAT-ə-mee/) The study of internal structures of living organisms by dissection is called anatomy e.g. internal structure of the kidney.

3- Histology (/hist-TAWL-ə-jee/) The microscopic study of structural tissues of organisms is called histology e.g. study of muscles, adipose, connective tissue, etc.

4- Cell biology: The study of the structures and functions of cells and cell organelles is called cell biology. This branch also deals with the study of cell division. e.g. muscle cell.

5- Physiology (/fizz-ee-AWL-ə-jee/) This branch deals with the study of the functions of different parts of living organisms e.g. working of muscles.

DNA, a heredity molecule. It controls heredity by nature’s secret codes hidden in the nucleotide sequence.

6- Genetics (/dʒəˈnɛtɪks/) The study of genes and their roles in inheritance is called genetics. Inheritance means the transmission of characters from one generation to the other e.g. Blood group genetics.

chick development stages from egg to fully developed chick in 21 days. differentiation and organogenesis can be clearly seen

7- Embryology (/em-bree-AWL-ə-jee/) It is the study of the development of an embryo to new individual e.g. study of various stages of chick development.

8- Taxonomy (/takˈsɒnəmi/) It is the study of the naming and classification of organisms into groups and subgroups. e.g. identification of the taxonomic position of a newly discovered animal species in an area.

9- Paleontology (/ pæl.i.ɒnˈtɒl.ə.dʒi /) It is the study of fossils, which are the remains of extinct organisms e.g. estimating the age of the dinosaur’s skeleton.

10- Environmental biology: It deals with the study of the interactions between the organisms and their environment. For Example the effect of pollution on human health or human activities which increase pollution on the planet.

Mongoose mother can put even her own life at risk while protecting her pups

11- Socio-biology: This branch deals with the study of social behavior of the animals that make societies.For Example: protective behavior of mothers to their offspring, killing of cubs by male lion to reduce competition in their offspring.

12- parasitology (/pare-ə-sə-TAWL-ə-jee/) This branch deals with the study of parasites e.g. study of mosquito, bacteria. worms harming the bodies of animals are all parasites. Plants also have other parasitic plants i.e. Cuscuta.

The process by which the DNA of an organism is cut and a gene, perhaps from another organism, is inserted, is called Gene splicing. It is often used in industry to allow single-celled organisms to produce useful products, such as human insulin.

13- Biotechnology (/ baɪ.əʊ.tekˈnɒl.ə.dʒi /) It deals with the practical application of living organisms to make substances for the welfare of mankind. Its best example is using bacteria for producing human hormones such as Insulin, growth hormones, etc.

14- Immunology (/IM-yə-NAWL-ə-jee/) It is the study of the immune system of animals, which defends the body against invading microbes. For Example: How White blood cells engulf foreign particles is actually an immunity study.

Dysdercus cingulatus is a true bug generally called as the red cotton stainer. It is a dangerous sucking pest of cotton mainly and attacks other plants as well, such as okra, citrus, and jute, etc. Adults and older nymphs of this bug feed on the emerging bolls and the cotton seeds, also transmitting cotton staining fungi which deteriorate lint quality.

15- Entomology ( / en.təˈmɒl.ə.dʒi /) It is the study of insects. For Example: If someone wounder why ants form Que and how honeybees search for insects, all this comes in Entomology.

16- Pharmacology (/ fɑː.məˈkɒl.ə.dʒi /) It is the study of drugs (medicines) and their effects on the systems of the human body. For Example: If a doctor is studying the effects of cinchona bark extract on malaria patients, he is studying pharmacology.

17- Molecular biology (biochemistry / ˌbaɪ.əʊˈkem.ɪ.stri / ) It deals with the study of the molecules of life. For Example Study of the role of water, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids molecules in maintaining life.


Bioinformatics basically refers to genomic research involving the application of computing, computer knowledge, and statistical applications.

Thus, various branches of biology are classified in terms of the basis of the study. Some of the topics are accompanied by biological experiments, allowing students to correlate theoretical understanding with visual insights.

For example: taking a cell under a microscope will surely help in clearing doubts in terms of its structure and parts, rather than studying with charts.


Entomology

The study of insects in referred to as entomology, which is a branch of zoology. Insects used to be a lot looser term. It used to encompass some animals as well as arachnids, earthworms, snails and slugs. Though the broad range meaning is still used, it is only used in informal settings. Entomology helps us learn about insects, how they've adapted, and what they can and do to help humanity.

Entomology spans back thousands of years, back to the prehistoric times. Back then, man would often eat insects as a source of nourishment, since insects are full of nutrients. What insects you could and couldn't eat was the origins of entomology, but the study itself didn't begin until the 16 th century. It wouldn't hit its stride until William Kirby.

William Kirby is commonly known as the father of Entomology. His book, Introduction to Entomology, which he co-wrote with William Spence, is the foundation for all entomology. He would go on to make the Royal Entomological Society in 1833. Centered in London, it was one of the earliest societies that focused on entomology. There were a few others that started before it, like the Aurelian society, which started in the 1740s.

During the 19 th and 20 th centuries, entomology developed rapidly. The first entomologist would win their first Nobel Prize in 1973 for physiology or medicine. His name was Karl von Frisch. One of the most famous entomologist was Charles Darwin, who studied many insects in the 19 th century and dictated how they evolved among island populations.

Entomology covers a wide variety of sciences. This is because any science that must do with insects is part of entomology. This is called a taxon-based category, which means anything from molecular genetics to paleontology can wind up being enclosed in entomology. With over 1.3 million insects ever documented, which is 2/3 of all organisms and spanning back 400 million years, it's a vast topic that will come up more often than one would think.

Because of how many insects there are, it is very hard to identify some species. This is because without a microscope or prior knowledge to the insect it's almost impossible to tell the difference, though seasoned veterans shouldn't have any issue with it. Because of these setbacks, several automated insect species identification systems were created, like DAISY (Digital Automated Identification System). Daisy was made in the mid-1990s by Dr. Mark O'Neil, and can identify a species in under a minute.

Entomology is the study of insects, which includes a wide variety of topics. Because all studies of insects fall under entomology, it's much easier to figure out where to start if someone was considering becoming an entomologist. With new insect species being found every day, and no shortage in sight, it's no wonder entomology is such a rich and diverse study.

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1.4.5.14: The Branches of Biology - Biology

The scope of biology is broad and therefore contains many branches and sub-disciplines. Biologists may pursue one of those sub-disciplines and work in a more focused field. For instance, molecular biology and biochemistry study biological processes at the molecular and chemical level, including interactions among molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins, as well as the way they are regulated. Microbiology, the study of microorganisms, is the study of the structure and function of single-celled organisms. It is quite a broad branch itself, and depending on the subject of study, there are also microbial physiologists, ecologists, and geneticists, among others.

Forensic Science

Figure 1. This forensic scientist works in a DNA extraction room at the U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Laboratory at Fort Gillem, GA. (credit: United States Army CID Command Public Affairs)

Forensic science is the application of science to answer questions related to the law. Biologists as well as chemists and biochemists can be forensic scientists. Forensic scientists provide scientific evidence for use in courts, and their job involves examining trace materials associated with crimes. Interest in forensic science has increased in the last few years, possibly because of popular television shows that feature forensic scientists on the job. Also, the development of molecular techniques and the establishment of DNA databases have expanded the types of work that forensic scientists can do.

Their job activities are primarily related to crimes against people such as murder, rape, and assault. Their work involves analyzing samples such as hair, blood, and other body fluids and also processing DNA (Figure 1) found in many different environments and materials.

Forensic scientists also analyze other biological evidence left at crime scenes, such as insect larvae or pollen grains. Students who want to pursue careers in forensic science will most likely be required to take chemistry and biology courses as well as some intensive math courses.

Another field of biological study, neurobiology, studies the biology of the nervous system, and although it is considered a branch of biology, it is also recognized as an interdisciplinary field of study known as neuroscience. Because of its interdisciplinary nature, this sub-discipline studies different functions of the nervous system using molecular, cellular, developmental, medical, and computational approaches.

Figure 2. Researchers work on excavating dinosaur fossils at a site in Castellón, Spain. (credit: Mario Modesto)

Paleontology, another branch of biology, uses fossils to study life’s history (Figure 2). Zoology and botany are the study of animals and plants, respectively. Biologists can also specialize as biotechnologists, ecologists, or physiologists, to name just a few areas. Biotechnologists apply the knowledge of biology to create useful products. Ecologists study the interactions of organisms in their environments. Physiologists study the workings of cells, tissues and organs. This is just a small sample of the many fields that biologists can pursue. From our own bodies to the world we live in, discoveries in biology can affect us in very direct and important ways. We depend on these discoveries for our health, our food sources, and the benefits provided by our ecosystem. Because of this, knowledge of biology can benefit us in making decisions in our day-to-day lives.

The development of technology in the twentieth century that continues today, particularly the technology to describe and manipulate the genetic material, DNA, has transformed biology. This transformation will allow biologists to continue to understand the history of life in greater detail, how the human body works, our human origins, and how humans can survive as a species on this planet despite the stresses caused by our increasing numbers. Biologists continue to decipher huge mysteries about life suggesting that we have only begun to understand life on the planet, its history, and our relationship to it. For this and other reasons, the knowledge of biology gained through this textbook and other printed and electronic media should be a benefit in whichever field you enter.


Cell Biology

Cell biology stems from biology. Its purpose is simple, to study the structure of cells as well as their many functions. Everything that is living is made up of millions and millions of a variety of cells. It allows scientists to know what's going on in a cell at any given time, and can help the bio-medical field. Studying the cells must be done with a microscope, because cells exist on a microscopic and molecular level.

Cell biology focuses more on organisms that have organelles (a unit with a membrane). Prokaryotes, or cells without being attached to a membrane, fall under microbiology. This allows for a more focused and clear way to dictate

The origins of cell biology dates to the 17 th century. Robert Hooke, a renowned English philosopher who specialized in nature, discovered the cell in 1665. While observing thin slices of bottle cork under his coarse, compound microscope, he saw many tiny pores which he named cells. Cells comes from the Latin word "Cella" which means a small room.

Although Hooke made the discovery, he was unaware of the vast amount of uses for the cell. He didn't write down the nucleus, nor did he write down the many tiny organelles that live within a cell. These discoveries were made by Anton van Leeuwenhoek. In 1676, he would use a 270x zoomed microscope. He would go on to make many revelations about the cell and where they exist, including protozoa, bacteria, and was the first to find red blood cells.

To study a cell, you must do it on a molecular level. The cell is made up of molecules, ions, hormones, and about 75-85% water. This is because it can exist in water without disappearing into it, due to the polarity of the cell and water. On a greater scale, the molecular composition of a cell is proteins, lipids, and organelles.

Cells are what keep us alive. They are microscopic organisms that produce many the needs for organisms to survive. They link together to make large bodies, and can do a range of processes, from your muscle tissue, to the functions of digestion. They are essential to survival, and are one of the many stepping stones to life. Cells exist in all living things, which includes plants, animals, insects, and anything that is deemed a living organism.

Cell Biology has revealed many things about our surroundings, as well as pushed forward many boundaries in all aspects of life sciences. It has allowed us to see what organisms are made up of, as well as the various organelles inside the cell. With the discoveries of Hooke and Leeuwenhoek, we began our journey into cell biology, and the advances we make will change future generations forever.

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What is biology?

Etymologically, the term “biology” comes from the Greek and means “the science of life. ” Thus, biology is the science that studies living beings specifically, it studies its origin, its structure, its characteristics, its vital processes, and its evolution. In addition, it also studies how living beings interact and reproduce, as well as the interaction between living beings and their environment.

Biology is one of the oldest sciences in history, which has advanced a lot in knowledge. It is a science with such a wide field of study, that it must be diversified into different branches.

In this article we will know the 30 most important branches of biology However, it should be noted that the greater the study and specialization of biology, the more branches are emerging and that there are some more (of recent appearance).


Developmental Biology

Developmental biology is studying organisms as they mature. Its origins come from embryology, and is mostly focused on the control of cell growth. These cells are found in living organisms, such as plants and animals. With advances in developmental biology, we can get a better feel for cells and how they change or evolve over time, as well as how it impacts living bodies.

Developmental biology is a literal term, meaning it's about searching for development in living things. Development can be found in many different aspects in general, such as regeneration, metamorphosis, and asexual reproduction. Plant development starts in vegetative reproduction, embryo as well as all the roots and flowers. Development can also be found in stem cells of adult organisms. One example being how plants develop in their embryos which is a vegetative reproduction.

Different functional cell types that are in development is a process known as cell differentiation. An example would be neurons or muscle fibers. These cells create vast amounts of certain proteins for a unique function, which enables them to be picked up under a microscope. Genes within these proteins are highly active. This stage is, for the most part, the final stage of development where several other states come before it.

Regeneration is when the cell grows back a missing piece. The most common place this occurs is with plants, which continuously grow. This can happen in the animal kingdom too, with newts being able to regrow their tail, or frogs being able to regrow a leg.

In total, regeneration is separated into 4 types. Two examples that can regenerate any part of their body with a single piece are hydra and planarian worms. They both make cells constantly from stem cells. The remaining two can only regenerate appendages, and are mostly insects, like the cricket which can regenerate appendages or amphibians who can regenerate legs.

In embryonic development, the sperm and egg combine to make a fertilized egg. This is also known as a zygote, and during this time, separates several times to create a ball of like cells called blastula. These cell division happen so fast that there can hardly be any cell growth. This is so the cells from the daughter are half of the size of the mother cells. This causes the cell to stay mostly the same size.

In the embryotic state, growth happens almost by itself. Every section of the cells has a growth rate which is predetermined by the active genes. Embryos that are free and living do not grow because they have no source of outside food. In contrast, embryos fed by a constant source can grow rapidly, and these changes help in the overall anatomy.

There are many parts to developmental biology. While we learn more about this, it will help us learn more about genes as well as the various cell functions being used. Advances in this field will help us learn more about how other animals link, and how we can use their regenerative powers to improve mankind.

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Who is the Father of Biology?

Aristotle is regarded as the “Father of Biology”. The birth of Aristotle was in 384 BC. In the 4th century BC the Greek philosopher Aristotle traveled to Lesvos, an island in the Aegean teeming, then as now, with wildlife. His passion for what he discovered there, and his meticulous research of it, resulted in the birth of new science i.e., Biology. One of the three major subjects of natural science is Biology. Basically, biology is the study of life, living things such as animals, plants, fungi, microorganisms, etc., and the evolution of life.

He was considered as the ‘Father of Biology’, due to the extensive study of the natural world and also studied its origins using scientific insights and systematic observations rather than connecting it to divine interference. However, Aristotle was the first to reveal the relationship between animals and establish a system of classification. Check out the below image and memorize Aristotle’s biography.

List of Other Fathers of Biology Branches

Biology is the study of living beings for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena. It is classified into different branches such as Botony, Zoology, etc. The Father of Biology is Aristotle and the fathers of different branches of Biology are presented here in the below table. ‘Who is the father of Botany or Zoology?’ or such other questions have been asked in various Govt or other Competitive exams. So, have a glance at the below table and remember the names of fathers for different branches of biology.

Subject Father
Father of Botany Theophrastus
Father of Zoology Aristotle
Father of Biology Aristotle
Father of Modern Botany Linnaeus
Father of Endochrinology Thomas Addison
Father of Immunology Edward Jenner
Father of Agronomy Peter De-cresenji
Father of Genetics GJ Mendel
Father of Modern Genetics TH Morgan
Father of Cytology Robert Hooke
Father of Palynology Erdtman
Father of Mycology Micheli
Father of Plant Physiology Stephan Hales
Father of Gene Therapy Anderson
Father of Polygenic Inheritance Kolreuter
Father of Surgery and Plastic Surgery Susruta
Father of Anatomy Herophilus
Father of Ethology Konard Lorentz
Father of Cloning Ian Willmut
Father of Chemotherapy Paul Ehrlich
Father of Bryology Johann Hedwig
Father of Mutation Hugo De Vries
Father of Genetic Engineering Paul Berg
Father of Ayurveda Charka
Father of Taxonomy Carolus Linnaeus
Father of Embryology Aristotle
Father of Blood Circulation William Harvey
Father of Medicine Hippocrates
Father of Blood Groups Karl Landsteiner
Father of Palaentology Leonardo da Vinci
Father of DNA Finger Printing Garrod
Father of Gerontology Korenchevsk
Father of Bacteriology Robert Koch
Father of Antibiotics Alexander Fleming
Father of Pathology Rudolph Virchow
Father of Virology WM Stanley
Father of Epidemiology John Snow
Father of Endocrinology Thomas Addison
Father of Homeopathy Hahnemann

FAQs on Father of Modern Biology or Father of Botany

1. Who is the Father of Science?

Galileo Galilei is the father of science.

2. Who is the father of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology?

The father of physics is Isaac Newton, the father of chemistry is Antoine Lavoisier, and the father of biology is Aristotle.


Watch the video: Branches of biology. Part 2. Discientific (August 2022).